The Christmas image


This image is of a glass bottle that has an illustration which commemorates christmas. I found the image on this glass bottle to be similar to Paul Cézanne’s, The Basket of Apples and Pablo Picasso’s , Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. I found that as similar to Paul Cézanne’s, The Basket of Apples, the image on the glass bottle also has a sense of destruction of the unified image. The image is not equally proportioned and up close the image seems to be out of place. In addition it is similar to  Pablo Picasso’s , Les Demoiselles d’Avignon because like Picasso’s painting, the image on the bottle breaks down the features of the body into simple shapes like circles and triangles and there is no sense of texture within the image. However, unlike Picasso’s painting which breaks down body parts into sharp, jagged, almost shattered forms, the image on the bottle is broken down into more softer shapes.

~Ashley G. , Team Juno

Aeneas and Achates



Carthage Aeneas and Achates


This image that I chose is called Carthage: Aeneas and Achates by David Cox. This painting in my opinion uses chiaroscuro because the trees on the sides of the paintings are painted in dark colors while the water and city in which the two men are walking towards are painted in lighter shades of white and blue. This is in order to give attention to the vast water and city in the far away distance. This painting also includes linear perspective because it is able to bring a three dimensional perspective on a two dimensional surface. The painting gives the viewer the illusion  that they are viewing this scenery from a higher point than the two men. A quote from the excerpts of Vergil book one that would relate to this picture is, “Aeneas puts in here with a bare seven warships saved from his whole fleet. How keen their longing for dry land underfoot as the Trojans disembark, taking hold of the earth, their last best hope, and fling their brine-wracked bodies on the sand.” This quote that I choose is similar to the painting in that it describes their longing for dry land which they would illusion to be like the painting above. The difference is that in contrary to the violent and gruesome scene described in the quote, the above painting reflects a more calm and peaceful environment. I believe that the artist includes the vast view of the ocean to help give the viewer know that the Romans had a vast empire as well.

Ashley G. ~ Team Juno

The Death of Socrates


The above picture is one that I took while going to the Metropolitan museum. The picture is of The Death Of Socrates. In my opinion, I would say that this painting to an extent has Chiaroscuro. This is because similarly to Caravaggio’s  Calling of St. Matthew it utilizes light to highlight a certain person or quality. For example, in Calling of St. Matthew the light in the picture highlights Mathew pointing at himself. Similar to this, in The Death Of Socrates the light highlights Socrates and puts emphasis to what he is about to do, which is drink poison. However a difference between the paintings would be that while Caravaggio’s Calling of St. Matthew is used to signify a spiritual awakening which evokes strong feeling from the viewer; in The Death Of Socrates this scene with Socrates signifies his bravery and loyalty to science.

~ Ashley, Team Juno

The Power of Land Reform

Enggass, Peter M. “Economic Geography.” Economic Geography, vol. 55, no. 4, 1979, pp. 357–358. JSTOR, JSTOR,

This article, written by Peter Enggass, discusses the book Land Reform: A World Survey, by Russell King. This article discusses the themes and overall discussions in King’s book. Enggass explains that within his book, King gives a general overview of what land reform is.  And in addition he explains how King’s intended readers are people who want to have a better and deeper understanding of land reform and what difficulties that agrarians faced. In his book King states,“The historical evolution of land reform, from classical Greece and Rome [including the] Gracchi reforms of 121 BC”. He also states that “Africa consists of a chapter devoted to Kenya and one to the poverty and inequality because systems of land tenure to be regarded as the primary obstacle to economic development”.  And like stated in the reading “Gracchus in his speeches to the people urged them to overthrow the aristocracy and establish a democratic government; and after winning the favour of all classes, he had them not only as supporters, but even as instigators of his bold objectives”. This meaning that Gracchus would use his words to convince the people to follow his rule and with the help of land reform he would break the harmony that existed previously between the senate and the equites, and make the populace a serious rival to both these classes.

~Ashley G., Team Juno

M Train Linear Perspective


This picture was taken at the Myrtle- Wyckoff avenue station of the M train. At the train station, I noticed that at this particular spot at the train station was similar to the linear perspective of Masaccio’s  Holy Trinity. However this picture is not one that gives the illusion that we are there to see the crucifixion or increases our faithfulness in God like in the painting of the Holy Trinity. Yet in this picture we see the use of linear perspective in which it recreates the 3 dimensional world into a 2 dimensional surface, although it does not allude to God, in my opinion this picture illustrates the importance of the train system here in New York. This is because in the picture, it seems as if the tracks go on forever, which for me symbolize how us new yorkers for the most part depend on the train services to transport us from one place to another everyday.

A Santa Sabina double



This picture is of St. Matthias Church which is a Roman Catholic church in Ridgewood, Queens. This church in my opinion, would be best compared to the Basilica of Santa Sabina in Rome. For example similar to Santa Sabina, St. Matthias also has a narthex which then directly leads to the nave of the church. The nave then leads to the apse, in which the priest holds his ceremony. In addition, perpendicular to the nave is the Transept which also similar to the Basilica of Santa Sabina. St. Matthias church also included a similar and very detailed capital of a Corinthian column, and like the Romans also covered their columns with marble in marble in order to give it a more luxurious look. However, unlike the Romans who used the basilicas as court, or building that showed authority or even just as a layout of a building, the Roman catholics use the image of the basilica like of Santa Sabina in order to re-purpose it and use it as a form of worship to God.

Barbaric People

As described in the Herodotus readings, the use of the word “barbaric” is mostly used to describe someone or something as being different and sometimes even out of place. In the articles, “Decolonizing Judaism: Barbarism and the Return to Nativism” by Kevin Whelan and “Barbarian Virtues” by Samuel Moyn these articles also describe either someone or something being considered irrational or unsophisticated to others.

In the article, “Decolonizing Judaism: Barbarism and the Return to Nativism” by Kevin Whelan, Whelan discusses the political divides, contemporary social divisions, and political action of the Irish community. Within his article, Whelan states that the Irish are being treated as the “other”. Whelans most probable target audience would have been bothe the Irish and the English. However the argument would sympathize toward the Irish and how they were being poorly treated, while the English would be under the lens of being the ones who would judge and discriminate against the Irish because of their beliefs and customs. For example, when Whelan states, “If Enlightenment were refused, Ireland was placed outside the pale of modern civilized society, thereby consigning it once more to the realm of the irrational, barbaric, and superstitious.” This quote explains how the Irish were being forced to follow the ways and customs of the English in order to not be seen as different or strange.

In the article “Barbarian Virtues” by Samuel Moyn, Moyn also describes how regular people are being seen as being the “other”. In his article, Moyn describes how James C. Scott the author of Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States, explains that people who do not follow his diet of being paleo, which is eliminating wheat out of one’s diet, are considered barbaric. Moyns point throughout the article isn’t to criticize Scott, but to criticize how people nowadays are too eager to follow all the new trends in order to not be seen as being strange or weird. Myon states,“… accusing civilization of evil, extolling “barbarian” virtues, and telling his readers that they have had the bad luck to be born amidst the moral ruins, mesmerized by the distracting grandeur of the states that enslave them”. This quote shows to prove how Myon believes that people should not be on top of all the new trends just to be considered “acceptable” to others.

Both of these articles are similar to the way that Herodotus described barbarians in his works. In Herodotus Histories, Herodotus described Croesus as being the “other”. Herodotus explains that Croesus “.. was the first of the barbarians who had dealings with the Greeks, forcing some of them to become his tributaries, and entering into alliance with others”. This is similar to the other two articles because they all describe how someone would be considered barbaric just because they do not fit into someone’s view of an ideal person.
Works Cited

Hochberg, Gil and Shir Alon. “Decolonizing Judaism: Barbarism and the Return to Nativism.” Boundary 2, vol. 44, no. 4, Nov. 2017, pp. 179-194. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1215/01903659-4206385.

MOYN, SAMUEL. “Barbarian Virtues.” Nation, vol. 305, no. 10, 23 Oct. 2017, pp. 27-32. EBSCOhost,

St. Brigid Church


This picture was taken at my local church, St. Brigid, to which I used to attend. When I was younger it would always fascinated me how the inside of the church looked like. Now, while learing in Art 1010 I can now make connections and know from where the architects got the ideas of how to build the church. St. Brigid, in my opinion, could be most closely related similarly to the Hypostyle hall of the Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain and to a basilica, like the Basilica of Santa Sabina, in Rome. All three of these buildings have columns built like those of ancient Romans which appeared to be two-tiered, and they both had symmetrical arches which when down the nave of the church and the Hypostyle hall. However, although St. Brigid is similar to Hypostyle hall and the Basilica of Santa Sabina, it also has some differences. For example, the Hypostyle hall was filled with columns, however the columns in St. Brigid only have the columns from the entrance of the church down the nave, leading to the chancel of the church. And differently from the Basilica of Santa Sabina, the column of St. Brigid give more of a sense of weight than that of the Basilica.

Ashley Garcia, Team Juno

Do you know this man?

Brigida Coyotl, mother, 36 years old, asked at home

Do you know who Alexander the Great was? No.

Rodrigo Garcia, father, 40 years old, asked at home

Do you know who Alexander the Great was? A little.

What do you know about him? I think he conquered a lot of land.

Where did you learn about him? While watching history channel.

Bryant Tepi, cousin, 21 years old, asked at home

Do you know who Alexander the Great was? Yes

What do you know about him? I think he was good at battles and conquered a lot of land.

Where did you learn about him? High School.

    When I asked these questions to my family members, about knowing anything about who Alexander the Great was, most of them answered that they only knew him to be a conqueror who only took land from people. The similarities of the answers, in my opinion, were to be expected because in school and on television because of a time limit or other circumstances, teachers and shows only discuss the main points of Alexander’s life and how he took over large pieces of land. Television shows and school curriculums dont have the time to explain the background of Alexander the great and teach or show how he grew up and how he became a great and significant figure in history. In similarity to the all mighty and powerful figure that Alexander was made to be, in the Alexander Romance reading it states,  “Alexander shall not be the high and mighty conqueror of the whole world, for a king is nothing  unless he have fit and decent land.” This quote describes how Alexander was seen as a powerful figure because he conquered so much land. However, within the same passage also states, “…this man’ [Alexander] has made not slaves but soldiers. And those who were his  enemies, he made his auxiliaries. For Alexander has ruled all in this way; and he has maintained his  power by doing kindnesses ​to ​his friends.” This quote shares how, unlike the television shows and teachers describe, Alexander was also well thought of as a man who did kind actions to help his people and those around him.

The unrealistic Utopian Society

In the article, “The Concept of Realistic Utopia: Ideal Theory as Critique by Marit Boker, Boker explains how in our society the perfect society or utopian society does not and will not exist. He states that in our society it would not be impossible because,”The implementation of a perfect society, for it to be perceived as perfect by every member, requires either the support of all or the suppression of some citizens.” This meaning that in every society no one has identical thoughts and ideas as everyone else. In a functional society, like ours, everyone has their own opinions and ideas that make them unique and different. In this article, Boker states that the ideal society will never be achieved because everyone has different thoughts and to achieve a utopian society, then either everyone has to be able to think in a certain way; or the people that think differently from the others would become suppressed to a point that their voices would never be heard. I would personally would have to agree with this article and with Boker because realistically speaking, everyone is different and some people are born with a mentality that makes them think that it is okay to hurt others. In my opinion a perfect society will never be achieved because of our many differences and because of the manipulation that the media now has against our society, and how it can easily influence it.

I believe that Plato would  have disagreed with this article because it states that the government would have to suppress a part of society in order to become a utopian society. Plato believed that the government would be this source of just and good power that would help all of its citizens and would not cast anyone out. Like for example Plato believed that, “…defense of justice stand the philosopher-kings— who unite political power and authority with philosophical knowledge of the transcendent, unchanging form of the good and the ideal city they come to rule, Kallipolis”. Plato believed that the upper class and kings would be an advantage to a utopian society while Boker believes that authority would never carry out this utopian society without hurting others along the way.

Böker, Marit. “The Concept of Realistic Utopia: Ideal Theory as Critique.” Constellations: An International Journal of Critical & Democratic Theory, vol. 24, no. 1, Mar. 2017, pp. 89-100. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/1467-8675.12183.

Walk of shame

In the fictional television show Game Of Thrones, many contemporary social issues are explained within the television series. In the fifth season tenth episode, a scene in which really captured my attention and made me think about how women are treated and how public the walk of shame was when Cersei was forced to walk through the streets of King’s Landing naked in order for her to “redeem her sins”. The scene shows how Cersei was kept in a prison and leading up to her walk of shame, she was “bathed” and cut from the long hair that she had. She was then brought outside of the prison where she was being held in and in front of all of the citizens of King’s Landing she was forced to strip and walk through the streets. While walking naked, a woman behind her in robes walked with her and she would say “shame, shame” and then ring a bell and repeat this over and over. The citizens of King’s Landing that saw what was happening at first were shocked but then started to call her names and profanities and they all started to throw anything they could at her like food scraps and feces.

This scene of Game Of Thrones made me think about how nowadays women are treated and also how instead of keeping one’s problems to themselves people now instead spread their troubles and problems to others around them. This scene can be compared to how now people on social media use these platforms to talk about how their partner cheated on them and therefore use social media to humiliate them and lets others comment their thoughts and opinions about the partner or situation. Like in Game Of Thrones people use the public to humiliate others and “teach” them a lesson. The scene also reminded me of both plays of Oedipus and Medea. In the Oedipus play the way that the Chorus was outside the home of Oedipus and publicly announced that the people of Thebes wanted a solution for their starvation and lack of reproduction was similar to how Cersei was made to stand in front all of the citizens of King’s Landing and pay for her sins.

Similarly, in the play of Medea a connection that I found was how both Medea and Cersei were made to be seen as objects and not people. In the play of Medea, since Jason wanted to marry another woman of higher class and basically used Medea it made me think that Jason did not think of her as a person but as an object that he could just use and then throw away when he wanted. Like Cersei, Medea felt like an object that was thrown away and had to face the critics of those around her about her failed marriage.

That’s So Ignorant

In the television show of That’s So Raven, in one of the episodes called True Colors, Raven and her best friend go together to a job interview for a fashion store called “Sassy”. During their interview both Raven and her friend gave fashion advice to a client and while Raven gave great advice and the client ended up loving her makeover, her best friend didn’t do so well and the client did not like her fashion choices. When it came to make a decision the interviewer ended up only giving the job to Raven’s friend and the reason why was because the interviewer did not “hire black people”.

This scene in particular was very significant because usually in a Disney show that is made for children, it usually does not discuss about racism. This episode was one of my very first encounters with what racism really was and even nowadays it is still a very serious issue in America. Nowadays especially with the new laws and regulation that the government has issued over the past few years, many people of a darker skin complexion from all types of backgrounds are living in constant fear of being discriminated against and possibly be physically hurt because of their skin color. The interviewer in this episode of That’s So Raven, reminded me of the types of people in America that believe the same thing that the interviewer believed in, which is that people of color are less than or “not superior”. There are still some people in America that believe that because a person is not a fair or light skin color, then that would automatically mean that they are uneducated or worthless. This interviewer in this episode also reminded me of Oedipus and how he believed that his authority that he gained from answering the riddle given by the sphinx gave him the power to look down upon others. Oedipus constantly boasted about how he saved the people of Thebes and was blinded by his pride and stubbornness to see that he was also the one that was also causing his people to suffer. Both the interviewer from That’s So Raven and Oedipus shared their ignorance to see that instead of seeing just the surface one should see the skills of a person.