Unit 3: Plato and the Linear

While going through my notes for Classics, I was reading the readings from Plato, and remembered the Death of Socrates painting from a previous Art class. I looked it up and thought if it used linear perspective or not, so I went into some research. I found this painting that clearly uses linear perspective, and involves Plato as well as Aristotle discussed in Classics. The painting uses a vanishing point as well as a horizon line to create depth inside the painting. Plato and Aristotle are at the center, (vanishing point), so the rest of the characters surround the main focus of the piece. Pieces like this can inspire modern contemporary artists to understand the concept of bringing a three dimensional element to their art. The mediums of the past were very limited to a few materials, yet in present times, paintings like this could have much more meaning, and depth than a depiction of Plato and the philosophers.

Sean Reilly, Artemis

Whence came Victory

Right here in Manhattan, Grand Army Plaza, New York, the Sherman Monument named after the American civil war general, William Tecumseh Sherman can be found, it is a sculpture that depicts the scene of the general on a horse with the remake of the Greek Goddess of strength, speed and victory, Nike, standing next to him. The overall meaning of the sculpture is to show that the Union was victorious because the goddess granted the Union speed and strength which helped to defeat the Confederate. Despite the vast history behind the Union general Sherman, the focus will be on the Goddess standing next to him. This remake was done in 1902 in bronze, where the goddess can be seen holding a palm branch in her left hand as a sign of victory, she is also shown wearing a golden garment, which is very detailed, her wings are also shown outstretched as if ready for action. This remake resembles the Winged Nike that was done in marble around c. 190 BCE. That version of Nike is marked for being one of the key representation of a Hellenistic sculpture because there are a lot of emotion being conveyed, her garment looks like the wind is bowing in her direction, her pose or posture can be described as dramatic and more realistic. This Nike has a posture that looks to be contrapposto but not quite, it has more dynamic. Overall, although these sculptures were done in different time frames they show similarities such as the depiction of the goddess Nike shown with wings in a somewhat dramatic fashion. The symbol is also fairly the same which is victory.


2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winged_Victory_of_Samothrace

Unit 3: Venus

This state is a depiction, albeit blurry but a depiction nonetheless, of the goddess Venus. Much like Titian’s Venus, the sculpture depicts the softness of her skin and voluptuous nature of her body. While the art form (sculpture versus painting) is different, both this Venus and Titian’s Venus make a point to showcase her fertility (via breasts and generally exposed skin) and extremely feminine nature. Although the differ greatly- this Venus is far more dramatic and similar to ancient Greek forms that Titian’s relaxed and Renaissance-like Venus- they both retain her timeless features of beauty, fertility, and femininity. More obviously, this is a marble sculpture while Titian’s work is a layered oil painting. Both are strikingly beautiful, depicting Venus in two of her historically various forms.

M Train Linear Perspective


This picture was taken at the Myrtle- Wyckoff avenue station of the M train. At the train station, I noticed that at this particular spot at the train station was similar to the linear perspective of Masaccio’s  Holy Trinity. However this picture is not one that gives the illusion that we are there to see the crucifixion or increases our faithfulness in God like in the painting of the Holy Trinity. Yet in this picture we see the use of linear perspective in which it recreates the 3 dimensional world into a 2 dimensional surface, although it does not allude to God, in my opinion this picture illustrates the importance of the train system here in New York. This is because in the picture, it seems as if the tracks go on forever, which for me symbolize how us new yorkers for the most part depend on the train services to transport us from one place to another everyday.

Who can do Contrapposto Better? Hamilton or David?

I really enjoy spending my time inside of parks, what I’ve had the opportunity to notice more are the statues that are scattered all over them. I have seen so many different types of statues, but the most common ones have taken influence from ancient Greek and Roman societies. From using marble to the similarity in form.

While I was in Central Park, I saw this statue of Alexander Hamilton. The first thing that I noticed was his stance, I immediately shouted “Contrapposto!!” and my friends looked at me with confusion. I was thinking about Michelangelo’s David and how striking the similarities are between the two sculptures. I read the plaque near it and saw that it was designed by Carl Conrads in 1880. It is the first ever outside sculpture of Alexander Hamilton, and it is larger than life. I wish that I could see Michelangelo’s David in person and next to this statue of Alexander Hamilton because even with images, the similarities are striking. One of the main differences is the fact that Hamilton is clothed, which shows a difference in cultural ideals.

David is shown as a hero, and Alexander Hamilton is definitely an American hero for all that he has accomplished. They both symbolize the importance of the person and you can see it in their stance, their posture and the size of the statues. Everything about it just feels powerful. They use the same material of marble and the detail in each are great, especially in the faces. I loved seeing how the clothes was created, as opposed to David’s bare skin. Both have a hand bent but Alezander’s posture with his hands feels more powerful and poetic.

-Mckensi Pascall, Aphrodite.

If You Tilt Your Head A Little…

F0AB6BD9-2D3B-4233-B744-F086F8C75F17After first learning about it, I was under the impression that linear perspective was limited only to works of art that portrayed the interior of a building. It occurred to me that if someone were to take the scene above (outside of the Met) and draw it, they’d have to use the technique in order to get the correct proportions and to convey depth, creating a three-dimensional scene on a flat surface.

-Carrissa Normil, Team Hestia (20)

Gothic Revival in Manhattan


During this summer, a friend of mine and I decided to explore Manhattan as a whole. On this journey, we made our way to St. Patrick’s Cathedral. The architecture as a whole connects to what we have been studying about the Florence “Renaissance” Revival, what we would come to know as the Gothic revival style. In this image alone you can see the high (vaulted) ceilings and large mosaics that would be unable to support the building alone. The pointed arches are another feature of the Gothic style, and it’s something you can see frequent in this image alone. Although it does have an absence of the flying buttresses on the outside which is a difference between this cathedral and the ones we learned of during the lectures. Needless to say, this was a sight I’m very glad to have had the opportunity to see.

Pictures and Linear Prospective



Yesterday, while I was out searching and shopping for Christmas gifts, I noticed this picture. In this picture the artist uses line in the same way that Brunelleschi used line in his painting. To create the sense of dept and to draw the eye to the subject. However, unlike the old techniques use in painting the lines use in photos are usually roads that lead somewhere or paths that direct the viewer forward, while the painting create a sense of depth, and bring the viewers eyes toward the subject.

Linear Perspective on my notebook cover


This is a notebook I found in my home which have a picture of a town in Paris as it cover. The reason I chose this picture as a relevant information from the art class I had week ago is because I believe this picture is related to what call— Linear Perspective. Look closely to the river sides, the distance between the two river bank seems to be getting smaller as the river goes down, but what we know in our prospect is that the river banks will never touch each other, because they are actually parallel. The further the river goes, the smaller the distance is between the river bank. But one thing we know for sure is that there will always be a river between to two sides. Similarly to what the reading Linear Perspective Interaction, it says in the text that “linear perspective eliminates the multiple viewpoints that we see in medieval art, and creates an illusion of space from a single, fixed viewpoint.” This discovery of linear perspective was so important at the time because it had great influence to the Humanism of the Renaissance.  Why? Because this prove that “‘it structured all images of reality to address a single spectator who, unlike God, could only be in one place at a time.'” It strongly support individualism, which it’s the most important things in the Renaissance.

Diyanet Center

Over the summer I went to a wedding which was held in a mosque in Maryland. Looking back at the pictures I noticed the many aspects of architecture we discussed in class in the mosque. The mosque, of course, had a dome shape just like the dome of the Cathedral of Florence. However, this mosque is built in the Ottoman style and has features that also resemble the Great Mosque of Cordoba because of its horseshoe arches. Unlike the dome in Florence this dome shape is more circular and not as tall or big. Also, the mosque had multiple smaller domes, not just one.



Shakiba, Team Vesta

Linear perspective in Atlantic City

linear perspectiveA couple of months ago I went with my friend to Atlantic city and being the devoted friend I  took a picture of her. As i was looking at the picture I realized it has some hints of linear perspective. It was a perfect picture of a real life situation where you see linear perspective. In the pictures I draw out the non existing lines of linear perspective. The yellow line symbolizes the horizon line. The blue lines represent the orthogonal lines. The place they all connect is where the vanishing point is. One difference there would be in linear perspective in the picture I took and the one we learnt about in class is that we learnt about linear perspective in a painting such as Masacios Holy Trinity.

-Anora A, Team diana

Art and Christianity

I found this painting in my grandmother’s house. My family belongs to the Catholic Religion, but particularly my grandmother is a very religious person and has decorated her entire house with representations related to Catholicism. When I saw this painting after Friday’s class I thought that, like the Holy Trinity by Masaccio, it is an example of a linear perspective. This painting together with the Holy Trinity presents the image of Christ, son, crucified. Also both paintings have a white dove that in Catholicism symbolizes the holy spirit in most cases. Unlike the Holy Trinity, this painting does not represent God the Father as a human figure, the way we’re used to seeing him as an old man with a beard, However I consider that the place where Christ is presented, the water and the dark sky may be referring to the presence of God the Father as a supernatural force, as an abstract element. This paintings does not have the image or Mary or St. John, nor any other character other than Christ and the white dove.Nor has the reference of life and death as preached in the Holy Trinity with the grave and the skeleton. This painting also does not share the characteristics of the classical architecture that contains the Holy Trinity by Masaccio. Finally it is important to highlight that the mood and meaning of these two works of art are the same, since both show a important scene for all Catholics where God’s is crucified for the forgiveness of all sins. In both figures we see Christ with his head low. Both show that moment when God gave his son to save all Christians.

Jamilex Dominguez. Team Mercury.

Chartres right in front of my eyes!


This is a picture I took on Bushwick avenue on my way to church. This is a church that has a structure just like the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Chartres ( c.1145-c.1220 ). If I was able to capture the whole building you would see that in front of it had the same Gothic style as the Notre Dame. There was a huge circular window in the middle and it had small windows on either side of the door. Especially with the pointed top. This church does not have a dome like other churches or like the Hagia Sophia, it had the six sided pyramid closing the top of the building. Furthermore another difference between the dome like churches and this Chartres is that most of the building is being supported by the outside instead of the inside where the interior structure is what is holding the building up. There is also a sense of symmetry within the building and everything is like a mirror. Whatever is on one side of the circular window, the same thing is on the other side. It is like the window was the line of symmetry.

Parisian Perspective


The oil painting above, depicting a clear-skied Parisian day, is one of many works of art following the linear perspective model. Similar to Masaccio’s Holy Trinity, this painting, which I will refer to as Paris, follows an interconnected grid of non-visible lines meant to pull the viewer’s attention to one specific point. In the case of Paris, the focal point lies near the base of the building just below the Eiffel Tower, which is shown by the outwards placement of the buildings and increasingly wide floor space as you move from the top to the bottom of the piece. In the second picture, you can actually see faint lines carved either into the oil paints themselves, or drawn onto the canvas below that lead to the focal point and may have been used as a reference for proportions and ratios within the painting. This image differs from Holy Trinity because it is non-religious, and shows a bigger emphasis on horizontal lines, as opposed to vertical ones. Additionally, Paris is painted with oil paints on canvas while Holy Trinity was composed of water-based paints on fresco, due to the different purposes they serve. Paris was meant to be sold and moved as a decorative piece, while the permanent fresco of Holy Trinity was meant as a religious statement piece in Santa Maria Novella.

– Natalie, Team Vesta

Perspecting Linearism

20171114_071206-1I’m not quite sure why we have this picture or where it came from but until this blog, I didn’t really pay it any mind. When you look at it closer, you can see that it is a good example of linear perspective. Linear perspective is the idea of making a two dimensional image look three dimensional. It adds space and gets rid of the rigid idea of objects in a picture. It makes the scene more realistic. Just like in ‘The Last Supper’, the lines in the photograph point directly to the main focus of the piece. However, the picture that I have is focused on a building with no people. In ‘The Last Supper’ the main focus was Jesus and you can see all of the disciples in different angles with movement. Using linear perspective made people look more realistic in paintings and not just oddly put.

– Ivory Tyson

Gothic in manhattan


While studying I came across this church and it directly reminded me of the St-Denis. I see the similarities between that church and the one in the picture. The pointing tops and the use of the pointed arch used for architectural purposes. Both have elements of gothic architecture. Constructed from brick and stone and the open space inside of both buildings.

Team Zeus Andrew


This photo depicts the USPS branch building in 450 Lexington in midtown. Like the buildings our trip around Lower Manhattan this building was another structure symbolically attributed to ancient Roman and Greek architecture. The most past of this structure is the decorative columns on the exterior of the building, which order to give it a official and authoritative presence. The fake columns however were not completely visually accurate because while the capitals are of the Doric order the base is of a Ionic or Corinthian style. Like many government buildings that we saw while on the trip this is just another example of people copying a well know architectural style that would improve the status of their building.

-Bedirhan Gonul, Team Aphrodite

Art Discoveries Down The Street

Linear Perspective is present in many places. You see it so many times throughout the day but it goes unnoticed. The day after our class talking about linear perspective I was walking on the high line in the city and took a picture, after thinking about it this picture had linear perspective in it the street gets smaller and smaller and it becomes more distant, the people and objects (trees,cars,etc.) become smaller, just like the holy trinity painting we talked about in class. To go more into linear perspective, I’m going to list each basic part of linear perspective and point out where it is the the picture.

The vanishing point is where the street and the skyline meet and it would be in the center of the street.

The horizon line is right there but it goes horizontally across the picture.

Orthogonal lines are there in real life where the white lines in the street are, where the curbs and street meet and where the tops of the building go down toward the vanishing point.

Even in a simple picture like this linear perspective is so prominent showing how important it is to us and especially if someone wanted to paint or draw this picture.

Aiden Ferris, Team Artemis

Artistic Depictions of David and Goliath; Now and Then


Growing up I recall being read to and also reading the stories and looking at the vivid illustrations in the Bible by means of a book I had entitled, “My Book of Bible Stories”. When we looked at and discussed Donatello’s David, c. 1440-60 and Michelangelo’s David, 1501-4, I decided to go take that book off the shelf and find the story of David and Goliath. The left image is from a recent revised publication and the right is a recent one. Though we can only see the back of David, we can readily infer that his body has been painted in motion he is actively slinging the stone at Goliath with his right arm. He is depicted as a weak sheperd boy.Thus he is actually committing the act. He is fully clothed, wearing loose garments and hanging across his shoulders is the pouch wear he kept the stones. He looks really young, with a full head of hair. In Donotello’s David, created during the Renaiisance, he has already committed the act of killing Goliath and cutting off his head, standing on it.  The rock that he most likely killed with is in his left hand. He is also depicted with Goliaths sword. He is free standing nude, there is sensuality with the way he has his hands placed on his hip and looking down. He is wearing a hat, rather than a helmet, rather than a helmet of war which demonstrates peace. Michelangelo’s David, also created during the Renaiissance His slingshot is acctually shown in this one, in his left hand, rock in right. He is in  contrapposto. His eyes and head is turned to his left which demononsrates that he has  just caught sight of his enemy and is now becoming tense not as relaxed. So it is not during or after the act, it is before. 

-Chanté Morren, Team Venus



Yet Another Post About Art1010 On BC Campus…


This is a painting I found in the staircase of the Brooklyn College Student Center. It perfectly represents the use of the system of linear perspective to create the illusion of a three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. Below is a copy of the above image with the orthogonals traced in green and then the main lines extended to demonstrate the vanishing point.

The orthogonals are the lines that would be parallel were you actually to stand in that scene and measure them. Instead, when seen from a certain angle, they seem to converge on a single point. As you can see, this technique is very effective at tricking the eye and mind into thinking there is depth to the image.

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The painting was set on the wall against the staircase so that as you descend the stairs, the vanishing point becomes eye level for you. This is how linear perspective works best, like we discussed regarding how Massacio’s painting of the Trinity was set at eye level for maximum effort.

-Chaya Ovits, team Venus

Fearsome Foes vs. the Little Guy


  Fearless Girl is a bronze sculpture by Kristen Visbal added to face off against the Wall Street Charging Bull. This sculpture is reminiscent of Donatello’s David. The meaning of these two pieces is similar, a smaller person going up against a seemingly invincible foe. Like Antigone from the drama of Sophocles’ Antigone, these depict someone who is willing to die for what they believe in; the odds seem heavily stacked against them. Both works feature a brave and proud subject, strong in heart even if they don’t appear to be.  They are also both sculpted from the same medium, bronze, with a hand on their hip.

While the David is a religious figure telling a story from the Bible of why faith in God is imperative, the Fearless Girl represents female empowerment and gender diversity in the workplace. Donatello uses a contrapposto pose in his sculpture; the young girl is standing almost perfectly symmetrical. Finally, the works show a different moment in the confrontations. David has just defeated Goliath, standing victorious with his head under his foot and sword in hand. The Fearless Girl is forever facing down her opponent; you can see the wind move her dress as the bull charges and the concentration on her face as she bravely holds her ground. Even with the differences of the pieces, they both demonstrate the truth that you can achieve anything you set your mind to no matter how small you may be.

Linear Perspective Everywhere?


This painting can be related to something I learnt last week in my art history class. This painting has linear perspective which was discovered by Brunelleschi during Renaissance era. It is a realistic illusion of three-dimensional space on two-dimensional surface. This painting has this feature in it as we can see how it has a vanishing point where everything diminishes. The objects in the front such as trees and other bushes look larger as compared to the objects that are in the background. Some human figures and animals are also seen in this painting. It really gives a three-dimensional effect and anyone who sees it feels like is standing inside the painting.

If I compare this with, Titian, Venus of Urbino, then the similarities are that they both portray linear perspective. They have human figures and animals in it. They also depict trees.

The differences are that the Titian painting has more brighter colors like red and green as compared to my painting which has more dull and light colors. The Titian painting conveys the feeling of sensuality as it has nude woman who has erotic expressions on her face. However, my painting is related to nature as it depicts humans figures, animals, etc. standing in a forest.

Gurleen Kaur, Team Venus

Church Near Me

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Image result for regina pacisImage result for regina pacis stained glass

I have been going to this church ever since I was a child and it is located a few blocks away from my house in Dyker Heights.  As I was going to church, as I usually do every Sunday it dawned on me that there are many features that relate to my class Art 1010.  That really shocked me because I have been going to this church for around 10 years now and never acknowledged the architecture it has inside it. Now that I am taking Art 1010 it has made me more aware of the architecture around me and my mind is now open to realizing the beauty of art. The stained glass in church had reminded me of the stained glass of Chartres which was one of the pieces of art we went over.  The interior of the church  also displayed many arches which relates to the Santa Maria Novella, Florence that we also went over. Art 1010 has definitely opened up my eyes when it comes to spotting different types of art no matter where I am located.


Anthony Mancuso, Team Venus

Linear Perspective of a Courtyard

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View of the courtyard on Ave J


The sculpture, which is the center point

This is a courtyard on the intersection of Avenue J and Ocean Avenue. It caught my eye as I was passing by it on my way to school. In this photo, we can see how the architects of the building employed linear perspective, a technique commonly used in Renaissance art, to draw eye to the fountain in the middle of the courtyard. The walls of the interval to the courtyard are similar to a hallway; your eyes naturally follow the passage to see what is at the end of it. the fountain itself has three “rings” to catch the water and deposit it to the bottom to be re-pumped. This architecture is common for fountains and probably wasn’t intended for the purpose of linear perspective, but upon traveling down the corridor, your eyes naturally land on the bottom-most “ring” and travel upward to the sculpture. It is interesting to also note that the center point of the linear perspective used here is a sculpture, because during the Renaissance, linear perspective was used mostly in paintings. This is another example of how modern-day artists have taken elements from past art and incorporated it in today’s art. Whereas in a painting you would have to paint the linear perspective, architects have figured out a way to use external objects to create linear perspective. Because of this, it is really easy to imagine the picture on the left as a painting which depicts a three-dimensional image on a two-dimensional surface. The statue itself is also intriguing. As there was so plaque to allude to the creature’s identity and the sculpture isn’t detailed at all, I couldn’t identify who it was. He is a child, holding what seems to be a fish over his shoulder, similar to the sculpture of a child wrangling the goose which was shown in class for Unit 3. I wondered if this sculpture depicted cupid but the boy has no wings. Then I thought maybe he was Poseidon, since he was a water god and this sculpture is on top of a fountain; however to my knowledge, Poseidon was never depicted as a child. Maybe this sculpture depicts just a boy, but I’ll have to ask Professor Yarrow to be sure.


Elene T., Team Mars

Linear Perspective

Linear Perspec.jpg

As I was scrolling through my camera roll I came upon this picture taken of me from around the same time last year. In the picture I noticed that the railings of the track seem to be converging and my body as a whole looks to be very small. After learning about it in class I know this illusion was created due to linear perspective. Linear perspective was used by many artist in the past to recreate a three dimensional shape onto a 2 dimensional surface. The elements of a linear perspective are the vanishing point, horizon line and orthogonal. One of the earliest artist to use linear perspective was Masaccio. He used linear perspective to create the Holy Trinity. One major difference i noticed between my picture and the Holy Trinity is where the vanishing point is located. In my picture the vanishing point is located in the middle while on the Holy Trinity the vanishing point is located on the ledge beneath Jesus’ feet.

Naim, Team Vulcan

The Last Supper

This is not the actual “ The Last Supper” by Leonardo da Vinci; This is just the painting of it and it’s hanging above the prayer room in my church, which located on 59th st between 10th and 11th Avenue. I haven’t noticed that there was a painting like this hanging there until last Sunday. It   reminds me of the Ancient Rome. Christianity began in the Roman Empire, the the Christians refused to worship the Roman gods. Therefore, the religion challenge began in Rome. And it also represents the one-point linear perspective. Jesus Christ is the vanishing point, he is at the center, which brought our attention. We hang it on the wall that everyone can see it because we want to show our love and respect for Jesus.


Team Jupiter: Shiyin Zhao2537D5B8-4F47-404B-8F6F-D6F3E1EF1E2B.jpeg

Unit 3

In Friday’s double session we discussed works that presented All’ antica , as well as Brunelleschi and linear perspective.One of the easiest examples of linear perspective to think of can be seen on a daily basis ( in my opinion) – train tracks. While checking to see if a train is coming, you look directly down the pathway and either see nothing or you see the faint glimpse of a train soon approaching. When comparing train tracks to the work we analyzed in class ( such as the Holy Trinity), one of the differences would be how this particular portrait seems endless whilst the work by Massaccio seems to have an end, even though we do see depth. In terms of similarity, it looks as though both had the same focal point ( located towards the bottom of the picture/work).


Mariana Sang, Team Athena


The Renaissance in the Modern World


A photographer named Alexey Kondakov has a ongoing series of photo shopped pictures called “Art History in Contemporary Life”. He takes figure in paintings from the Renaissance Era and places them in pictures that he took around Europe in the present day. The picture above shows a mother carrying a child while being sung a lullaby by three angels. It takes place in a modern setting, a train cart. The colors are bold and the figures are idealized. Like most Renaissance painting, the figures are most probably religious figures, as the woman is draped from head to toe, the baby naked, and the presence of angels. The picture has an innocence to it. Just like in a one point linear perspective work, this picture has a vanishing point, a horizon line, and orthogonal. Both medias are placed in public places to be admired by many. These pictures are put on social media, and the statue and paintings were put in crowded areas. However, there is a significant difference between a painting from the old era and the picture by Kondakov. For one, art from the Renaissance are usually nude and placed in or around churches and other important buildings. These pictures by Kondakov is a popular source found on the internet and doesn’t hold a significant value to a religion.

-Fariah, Team Hermes

St. Patrick’s Cathedral as a Gothic Style


I took this picture of St. Patrick Cathedral a few days ago. It remains me in the gothic style that we have spoken about in class. Unfortunately, I didn’t go inside to look deep and research the gothic style inside. The shape of this church is ogival which is one of the main characteristics of the gothic style. Pointed arch is another thing that caught my attention, which I associated with the gothic style. As we can see pointed arches are around the building which is very decorative and emphasize gothic characteristics. I didn’t really see the columns which made me question a little about its style. The church includes many big and beautiful windows. Overall, a building is constructed in a very good style.

Edyta, Team Aphrodite

Trinity Church

While walking in the city I️ came across trinity church on 75 Broadway which was established in 1696. The arches in the trinity church are exact copies of the arches in the nave of the Santa Maria Novella, Florence. The windows are similar to what we described in class how they are more stronger because the glass is upheld by the wood to make sure it’s strong enough to support the roof. The interior of Trinity Church in my opinion is very similar to that of the Santa Maria Novella. The arches and the columns attached to the pillars are what I️ found similar. The roof to is similar to the roof of the Ambulatory, Basilica of St.Denis, in Paris. The doors of the Trinity Church have religious depictions which most art of the renaissance portrays.

-Al-Bishr Askar team Hephaestus

Three-dimensional World on a Two-dimensional Surface

The picture below was toke in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, it calls Monks in the Cloister of the Church of Gesu e Maria, Rome. It was painted by Francois Marius Granet in 1808. This painting is similar to the Holy Trinity painted Masaccio that we see in class, both of them have a linear perspective aspect, which is a way of recreating a three-dimensional word on a two-dimensional surface. We can see both works looks so real that if we were standing and looking at it from straight on. However, even both are similar to linear perspective, but there is some difference between them. Holy Trinity is a fresco, which is a wall painting. The method that Masaccio used was painted it onto plaster that is fresh and it had to do quick and well because plaster dries fast. Monks in the Cloister of the Church of Gesu e Maria, Rome is an oil painting drawn on canvas and it takes much longer time to dries. Also, the vanishing point of this painting is the end of the hallway which is located on the left down side of the painting, slightly lower than the center of the painting and we see it straight to our view. Holy Trinity’s vanishing point was on the feet of Jesus because Masaccio painted it in a low viewpoint as we are looking up at Jesus.


The way home


I took this picture when I came home and it describe the ideas of one point linear perspective. In class I know one point perspective is a type of linear perspective. It relies on the use of lines to render objects, leading to illusion of space in graphic art. Display object will get smaller as they get further away, and converging towards a single vanishing point. From this picture, the trees on both sides of the road converge to one point and the vanishing point is in the center of the road.


-ShuLinTan, Team Venus

No Testicles Present

This bronze statue holds true to the ideal of true Ancient Greek sculptures….or almost; his privates aren’t showing. I took this picture in the Anthropologie store on our trip to Manhattan. I thought it was really funny that I got to see Hermes with my group, Hermes. But then I saw thunderbolts on his headpiece instead of wings which made me doubt myself. Now I am not sure if this is Hermes, but feel free to reassure me in the comments if you know who this is! I wish I could credit the artist becasue this looks as if it took quite a bit of time but I do not recall seeing any writing around that credits the artist. This statue shows the “ideal male figure” that the Ancient Greeks idealized in countless works of their beautiful ancient art. The statue is portrayed as young and athletic/fit, however I have a feeling that he isn’t as nude as the Ancient Greeks would want him to be, although I’m sure this satisfies the Church. Even though his body has so much movement and feeling in it, his face reminds me of the archaic smile. The eyes are dead and lifeless, which I feel is a waste to have done so much on the body only to draw all of the life, emotion, and feelings out of his face.


Christie, Team Hermes. IMG_0181

Glass from the Past


This is a very special glass house located right under the Brooklyn Bridge. I decided to use this glass house in my post due to it being mostly constructed of beautiful stained glass. Common across this image instantly struck my memory of the stained glass of Chartres. It’s beautiful, multicolor, complex designed glass can se spotted from many feet away. When the rays of the sun shine through these beautiful pieces of glass, the new colors that emit from the glass is a view to die for. The function of the glass from both then and not haven’t changed much from decretive design. This glass house is a beautiful piece of art that disused close to brooklyn bridge. It attracts the likes of even the youngest of art admirers. Many kids have been seen staring and taking pictures by this beautiful creation by Tom Fruin.


Ishmeal James

Team 7 Artemis

Perspective Perspectives


Going through my art portfolio while cleaning up my room I came across the drawing of mine from 2015. It was my first attempt at linear perspective, I didn’t even realize it was linear perspective until Friday’s class.  One point linear perspective creates an illusion of space from a single, fixed viewpoint in a two dimensional image.  The focal point of my drawing is the door at the back of the train cart, that is where the vanishing point is , this the equivalent of the area below Jesus’s feet in the Holy Trinity. The orthogonal lines that creates the illusion of depth are obvious on the floor, and ceiling of the train cart. The orthogonal lines on the walls that create the windows and posters are also aligned with the vanishing point to create the consistent 3-D depth.  The difference between by drawing and the Holy Trinity , is the vanishing point. The vanishing point in the Holy Trinity is on the bottom with orthogonal lines going in one direction whereas in  my drawing the vanishing point is in the center and orthogonal lines go in all directions starting at the focal point.

– Suman Afzal, Hephaestus

Rodin’s Adam


While visiting the Metropolitan Museum of Art a few weeks ago, I stumbled upon the Rodin exhibit. Throughout the exhibit, I studied various works by Rodin, such as a bronze cast of the Thinker, the marble sculpture of the Eternal Spring, and a bronze bust of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. In the Rodin exhibit, I studied the Adam sculpture because of its remarkable sculpting and pose. The Adam sculpture reminded me of Unit 3 because of it’s All ‘Antica style and resemblance of the Renaissance era sculptures and paintings. The Adam sculpture was heavily influenced by Michelangelo, specifically Michelangelo’s David Sculpture and the Creation of Adam portion of Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel paintings; I’ve studied Rodin before this class and knew that Michelangelo heavily influenced his work in the nineteenth century through his artworks of the Adam and Eve sculptures, The Thinker, The Gates of Hell, and others. The Adam sculpture reminds me of Michelangelo’s David and Sistine Chapel painting s because of several reasons; in the Adam sculpture, his right hand is pointing in a weird gesture, which is supposed to represent the pose of Adam in Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel painting of Adam reaching his finger to God, and his overall stance is like the David statue because of David and Adam’s immobilized-like pose. As for why the Adam resemblances All ‘Antica is because the sculpture, like Michelangelo’s David, incorporates a scene of a powerful figure of biblical importance and portrays them as an ideal form of male body, but Rodin takes Michelangelo’s work as a template and creates his own work in Adam, with a different unique material of bronze to distinguish it from the Renaissance era of Michelangelo to the Romanticism era of Rodin.

-A.C. Bowman, Team Saturn

The Spiels Around Us 

Gothic architecture was popularized  during the late Renissance around 16th century. The purpose of this architechture was to evolk feeling , which is not to surprising since it was during a period of humanism and focusing on the individual . Today we often see gothic architecture in many churches and buildings around NYC  and the world. But, hidden inside our neighbourhoods there are many houses that exhibit this form of architecture. In fact, as I walked on East 17th street right by our very own Brooklyn College I stumbled across these little gems below. 


These both exhibit an important feature , the spiel. It is a common feature used to elongate gothic structures.The spiel is the cone shaped piece on the cylindrical base. This is an iconic feature due to its feeling of excess height that it illuminates.

Samantha, Team Minerva


Image result for This marble sarcophagus (Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Lives of Saint Peter and Christ)

This is a Sarcophagus with scenes from the Lives of Saint Peter and Christ located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art going back to the early 4th century of the Roman Culture.I found this interesting because  it relates to the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus.

This carving shows scenes from the life of Christ. This was carved about the same time Christianity was spreading in the Roman Empire, similar to the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. There are two scenes of Saint Peter’s arrest in Rome and the miracle of drawing water from a rock performed in his jail cell. On the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, there are some scenes from the Bible. Christ is looking naturalistic and showing movement. Also, Christ is in the middle and looks very young with a scroll in his hand.

This relates to Classics class where we discussed about syncretism, the merging of two different cultures, which is depicted here with the sarcophagus connecting Christianity and the old Roman polytheistic traditions.

Both are similar in that they were carved around the time when Christianity was first recognized as a legal faith in the Roman Empire but, the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus is different as it connects classical and early christian art. With the capitals and columns, and Christ being situated above the river gods, the sarcophagus shows Christianity conquering old polytheistic traditions of the Ancient Romans which organizes and creates the new religion into its empire.

Adam Allan- Team Ares


Photography and Linear Perspective

In Unit 3 we learned about the One-Point Linear Perspective, an accurate way of recreating a three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface. The purpose of linear perspective was to eliminate multiple viewpoints (that were seen in medieval art) and create an illusion of space from a single, fixed viewpoint. Linear perspective suggests a renewed focus on the individual viewer, and we know that individualism is an important part of the Humanism of the Renaissance.

fullsizeoutput_bc.jpeg The image shown above is a photograph of mine of the street. I have marked it up with the basic elements of linear perspective including the vanishing points where all the lines meet, the horizon line, orthogonals that lead up to the vanishing point, and transversals.

The focus of my photo is down the center of the road. It is outlined by the trees and the cars. The elements of one-point perspective can be applied to this image, however, compared to the example we went over in class, the Holy Trinity by Masaccio, my photo’s angle is different. The viewpoint of the Holy Trinity is from below the feet of Jesus. The steps upon which the first two figures stand is the horizon line. In my image, the viewpoint is centered, where the vanishing point is right in the center of the photo from every angle.

Image result for holy trinity masaccio linear perspective Not my image.

Isra, Team Minera

The 3D Art

One of the most important thing that changes the art in the Early Renaissance time period was the Liner Perspective. the idea of Linear Perspective was found before the Early Renaissance and been rediscovered by Brunelleschi in about 1420, Florentine painters and sculptors were fascinated by this idea of giving a certain view of art can make the art more realistic. Art historian John Berger pointed out that the convention of view fits into Renaissance humanism because “it structured all images of reality to address a single spectator who, unlike God, could only be in one place at a time.”In other words, linear perspectives eliminate the multiple perspectives we see in medieval art and eliminate the illusion of space in a single fixed perspective.

Another thing I found that can make the 2D art became more realistic is the use in color, the used of light and dark color in the painting can balance out the view of the picture, which makes the painting more acceptable by people’s vision. One of the best examples will be “Titian, Venus of Urbino” which the light color that artist used in body makes the women easier to be catch by people’s eyes because she seems to be more stand out from the dark background, balance the picture which makes it more soft and more close to life. The use of light and dark color to makes the object can simply be described as the shadow of the subject.


This is one of the drawings that I found in my cousin’s sketchbook, which you can see this is a half finish drawing of mystery buildings. In this drawing, he didn’t use the Linear Perspective, but you still can tell the view of this picture is from somewhere in the sky. He used only black and white to tell where the light in this picture came from, and if we compare both left and right side of the picture, the side with the shadow is more realistic than the right side.

Art is never an easy thing to do, we can see art anywhere in the life, the history of arts not only tell us the development of the arts but also how life (culture, people, belief…)both affect and be affected by the art.


Yao, Team Zeus


John Berger, Ways of Seeing, p. 16, http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth200/Perspective.html

Dr. Steven Zucker and Dr. Beth Harris, “Titian, Venus of Urbino,” in Smarthistory, December 4, 2015, accessed November 15, 2017, https://smarthistory.org/titian-venus-of-urbino/.

Remnants Still Here


*Library Clock Tower

The library clock tower has some gothic influence on the architecture. An example of Gothic architecture would be the St. Denis ambulatory at the East End built sometime of the years 1140 – 1144. The Abbot was called Suger and he wanted something that was more open and allowed more light into the church. The library clocktower windows are tall and very open allowing light to enter that part of the building. Similar to the church of St. Denis the walls as result are very thin because of this. Dissimilar however is the fact the the tower is somewhat rounded where the windows are and looking at it from a distance there isn’t any fear of structural collapse though that could be due to the sturdy base. Comparing it to other Gothic Churches there is no flying buttress to take the thrust exerted by the pointed arches.







Knock off the old dome

20171020_103246.jpgThis is the dome structure of the Federal Hall, located in Manhattan. This is reminiscent of the domes from ancient Greek and Roman times. However, it isn’t as similar to the cathedral domes from Early Christianity times.

If one were to view the Cathedral domes,they would note that it’s being supported by ribs, as the technology was lost during the Middle Ages to make a proper dome. Also, the Federal Hall lacks the suspended dome that was common in Greek and Roman times. One can see that they also have supports, but not as significantly used as in the Cathedral.

Both lacked the technology to create a fully suspended dome without any clear supports. The Federal Hall does a good job of incorporating the supports into its design. The cathedral does more to hide the supports, as back then, the early Christians wanted to recreate the Greek and Roman architecture. Both wanted to recreate the predecessors’ buildings, but needed supoorts to keep the dome in the air.

View on Brooklyn Bridge


By scrolling down my camera roll, I found a great photo of Brooklyn Bridge that I took last summer and I realized that it reminds me of a linear perspective. In class, we learned that linear perspective is when geometric lines and a vanishing point give the illusion of depth and space, basically a three-dimensional object converted onto a two-dimensional surface by the use of lines.

On a bridge, depth effect is achieved through the use ropes that play role of 

Orthogonal and transversals, so it seems to extend out into the distance. We can also see a vanishing point on the top center where ropes from left and right sides narrowing to a center. I believe a creator of Brooklyn Bridge used ideas of  Brunelleschi during modeling a bridge.


From my point of view, it seems like those ropes are created not only to support a construction of a bridge but also to make it visually longer and create some sort of illusion.




Unit 3: Rupture & Revival

Unit 3 explains elements of  linear perspective and how ancient artists recreated the three dimensional world on a two dimensional surface and it became an extraordinary tactic used in both ancient and modern art. The picture presented below was taken upstate in Buffalo while visiting Niagara falls with family and friends and it perfectly depicts the idea of linear perspective. The point of linear perspective is to eliminate multiple viewpoints that is shown in medieval art, which forms an illusion of space from a single view point. The picture shown below was taken at an angle which puts the focus solely on the building right in the middle. Additionally, this image shows sunlight hitting the building which makes it even more presentable and more of a direct focus. This contemporary example differs from the linear perspective art works presented in class due to the imbalance of structures in the picture. For example, in class the images were proportional and more symmetrical then the picture shown below.  Also, after looking at the Holy Trinity, one can infer that the view point is from a different angle then the photo taken by me. The Holy Trinity portrays the view point from God’s feet, looking upward, where as the picture taken in Buffalo, New York is straight ahead.


Sunzida Mahbub, Team Athena #1010Unit3fullsizeoutput_6de

The Depths of Faith and Expression

This miniature sculpture is reminiscent of some olden sculptures and paintings during the Rupture and Revival Era. Visually, the sculpture has striking similarities when facial expression and motion are taken into account. While the photo’s lighting may not be the best, the angel clearly has a smile which is dominated by its mouth. Its eyes also have a serene gaze that doesn’t stare at anything in particular just like Michelangelo’s David. Also, while the material isn’t the same, the image of depicted motion here is clearly visible. The angel has its hands clasped and is balancing on a rock or monument of some sort. Several pieces of art during this era showed a clear picture of motion and this sculpture depicts that idea.

In terms of theoretical similarities, the wings on the angel are fairly detailed which tie -to the existence of God just like several pieces during the Rupture and Revival Era. There is also weight on the angel’s left leg as they attempt to balance themselves on the object they’re standing on. The head is also tilted, giving it more personality than it would if it were just a straight faced sculpture. It draws a lot of analytical comparisons to Michelangelo’s David.

In terms of differences, there are several key and obvious differences when this sculpture is compared to those of the Rupture and Revival Era. First and foremost is that this sculpture doesn’t have the intricate level of detail that the past sculptures have. While there is detail present in this sculpture, the eyes and face aren’t nearly as animated as say Michelangelo’s David who I keep coming back to as a point of comparison. Additionally, the ties to the gods aren’t nearly as strong. While the wings do symbolize a certain degree of afterlife and godhood, Michelangelo’s David has the slingshot and baby figure that help clarify and hint the veiled messages hidden within. Also, the contrapposto is more strongly depicted in past works as well.

In the end, while both sculptures have their fair share of obvious differences, they do share a number of symbolical and physical similarities.

Linear Perspective


The picture depicted next to the “Holy Trinity” is a more modern and stylistic version of the famous Leonardo da Vinci’s “The Last Supper,” which dates back to the latter part of the fifteenth century. This incredible piece, which is located in my home, is in some ways similar and different to the Renaissance Artist Masaccio’s “Holy Trinity.” They both exhibit extremely alike traits in Brunelleschi’s concept of linear perspective, while also displaying different characteristics to the other.

Leonardo da Vinci’s “The Last Supper” and Masaccio’s “Holy Trinity” exhibit multiple similarities between each other. Firstly, they both are perfect examples of Brunelleschi’s linear perspective concept, which was the recreation of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface, and which eliminated multiple perspectives, restricting us to only one viewpoint. Through the use of linear perspective in both Masaccio’s and da Vinci’s works, there is a sense of realism added to the picture with accurate representations of space distribution. Additionally, in both works, our attention is directed to the center of the pieces, although the vanishing points are in different positions, and we get the sense that the artists want us to focus on the divine, Christ. The direction of our attention to Jesus Christ portrays the Christian values of the creators. Furthermore, they both display similarities in classical structures; they both possess coffers above Christ himself, and have a Corinthian design (the Holy Trinity has Corinthian capitals, and the frame of the picture being depicted has a Corinthian design with leaves).

Although there are multiple similarities, the two pieces are significantly different to each other. Primarily, they both possess different locations of Christ with the vanishing points and horizon lines. While the main focus of both is Christ, da Vinci’s work actually centers Christ in the picture with the vanishing point, while in the “Holy Trinity,” Christ is running along the vertical middle but is not at the vanishing point. This difference in vanishing point is important because it tells where the single perspective actually is. In “The Last Supper,” we are viewing it from the same level with Christ in the center, which explains all the orthogonals directing our attention towards him. The orthogonals are represented by the lines formed from the edges of the coffers and walls of the room. In contrast, the Holy Trinity’s vanishing point is at the center of where the donors kneel, which signifies that we are at a lower viewpoint. Since they differ in vanishing points, they also differ in horizon lines and their locations in the images. The horizon line of “The Last Supper” is represented through an imaginary line that passes through the heads of Christ and his disciples, straight across, while the horizon line of the “Holy Trinity” is where the donors kneel. Additionally, they differ in the times in which they represent as well. The Last Supper depicts an earlier time-frame than the Holy Trinity, and this is supported by the presence of Christ’s twelve disciples with him in The Last Supper, and the crucifixion of Christ with God and the Holy Spirit beside him in the Holy Trinity. Finally, the picture in my home has a three-dimensional feature because the figures actually pop out, adding to the already present realism with linear perspective, while the Holy Trinity is a fresco.

Leonardo da Vinci’s “The Last Supper” and Masaccio’s “Holy Trinity” both have multiple similarities and differences. The Last Supper may possess many similar traits to that of the Holy Trinity, but also has significantly different depictions of linear perspective in directing our attention to a particular location in the picture.


Daniel, Team Diana.

All’antica Everywhere?

Williamsburg-Savings-Bank - Copy

While I was streaming two days ago, I came across this picture. The dome on top Williamsburg Savings Bank located in Williamsburg Brooklyn, between Broadway and Driggs Avenue quickly reminded me of the Dome on top of the Duomo (The Cathedral of Florence).

The Dome of the Cathedral of Florence and the dome of Williamsburg bank are both tremendous and enormous.  They both are in all’antica to the dome of the Pantheon from the classical period. This means the form of the two domes imitate the architectural design and structure of the Pantheon. Additionally, they are lanterns placed on top of each dome, and it is covering the oculus. The function of the lantern is to provide natural light into the buildings.

Built by Filippo Brunelleschi, the Dome of the Cathedral of Florence is a double shell. An inner shell which was made of very light materials and the outer shell made of slightly heavy materials. Ribs are placed inside the dome to bear the weight of the outer dome. Also within the shell is a staircase that allows people to get to the top of the dome, below the lantern. The dome of the Williamsburg bank is not a double shell. Pendentives are employed to allow the placing of the circular dome, and there is an inner staircase etched into all 20 oval windows around the drum of the dome. To add to, the dome of Williamsburg bank is built on a circular drum, and the Dome of the Cathedral of Florence was erected on an octagonal drum.


To conclude, both buildings stood domeless for a period in history. The Florentines had problems erecting the Dome of the Cathedral until Brunelleschi did the impossible and the bank of Williamsburg has also undergone many architectural evolutions before the building of the new dome.

Richard, Team Vulcan

Works Cited,

Corcoran, Cate. www.brownstoner.com/interiors-renovation/design-brooklyn-the-williamsburgh-saving-banks-starry-dome/.




Scene It!!!

If you are a New York and take the subway, then during your commute it is inevitable to avoid stained glass. As far as historians can go, stained glass has been around since 686 AD. It’s an ancient form of art from Europe and is commonly found in churches. One church known for its stained glass art is the Chartres in France (shown below).

stained glass

Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres

The Chartres was built before Christianity and was a devotional to the fertility  Goddess. However, when Catholicism changed the art of the time period, the temple was the Virgin Mary. The art was for more than just gazing upon but told Christian stories in a colorful manner that would appear to the illiterate.

Legend has it that in the 800s the church acquired the Sancta Camisa, the tunic said to have been worn by Mary at the time of Jesus’s birth. Because of this holy relic, the church became a popular pilgrimage site. When a new and larger church was to be built in the 1100s, local trade guilds and the nobility donated large amounts of money for its decoration.

Fisher, Tom, and Jane Fisher. “ Stained Glass Windows, Chartres.” France Travel Planner, Travel Info Exchange Inc, francetravelplanner.com/go/chartres/see/windows.html.

So just in case no one remember where they saw stained art here’s a subway station I frequented as a child:

brklyn stained glass

Not so Strange Concept Any More


This picture was taken on the two train to Brooklyn; it is a poster promoting the show Stranger Thing’s second season. It caught my eye because it is a drawing -computer generated- but never the less a drawing that uses one-point-linear perspective. The vanishing point would be in the center of the poster where the high way leads. Like the art we viewed in class this piece has orthogonal and the horizontal line. The horizon doubles as the horizontal line. The orthogonal can be seen with the highway shoulders and the fences in the field. Some differences how ever are that this picture isn’t as soft in colors it actually has very dark and deep colors such as reds, purples, black, and gray. Also the figures are small and not showing a lot of motion like in the works that we studied in class. The are still and facing away from us. It is also a little harder to notice the orthogonal in the sky of the picture. This painting caught my eye because of the outstanding sense of one-point-linear perspective and the fact that is for a show that is so modern and big right now. Along with the view that reminded me of class I also thought it was cool the choice of colors and how they are so dark usually on the subway  notice light and plain colors.

Michelangelo’s Renaissance Naturalism

IMG_2042.jpgI saw this bronze statue, the Eros sleeping, in the Michelangelo exhibit at the Met. I feel like it is a perfect companion piece to Donatello’s David. We discussed in class about how David had classical elements like being nude, and being positioned in a sensual pose, even though he was depicted as a young boy. In this case, Michelangelo is depicting the God Eros as a really young boy, almost a baby, but he is lying in a sensual pose. Also, the Renaissance age included the rise of naturalism. in this hollow bronze statue, the bronze is sculpted so that Eros’ flesh looks very life like and soft. The bronze is also utilized in different textures, from his curly hair, to his soft skin, to his feathers. Although both Donatello and Michelangelo made statues of David, Michelangelo’s Eros sleeping is way more like Donatello’s David.

Camille, Team Diana

The Winged Child


I found this sculpture, while walking around the Metropolitan Museum and it seemed interesting because it was related to the renaissance in Italy. Also I got lost in the Met and it led me to this piece of art. This piece is called the Winged Child:Fountain Figure. It is interesting how the renaissance affected this piece like all the other pieces that was created in the Renaissance. For example Donatello’s David was one of the early pieces of the Renaissance. The Renaissance in Italy brought back Greek and Roman style of sculpture that the church was so against. This picture is relevant to our class discussion because it turns out that this piece was created by an artist close to Donatello in Florence. Therefore, this piece of art is relatable to Unit 3 because the birth of this sculpture was at the epicenter of the Renaissance. Also in the lecture, Professor Simon spoke about Donatello’s David and other sculptures related the Renaissance. Some similarities is that the two sculpture is naked in the private part but they have something on their foot. For example, David has boots and the child has winged ankles. This piece of art differ from David because the position that they are standing is different, David is standing there having a calm posture and facial expression, while the Winged Child feels more enthusiastic and there is more action in the figure. They both have a different function in the society of Florence. David was a representation of the biblical hero that is seen to be similar to Florence. The Winged Child was used as a fountain figure because the puffed cheek was where the water came out. Thus, both was born in the Renaissance period but had two different functions. This is why, this piece of art was relevant and interesting.

Rupture and Revival In Our Backyard


As we went over in class, the definition of our unit 3: Rupture and Revival is the outbreak of the rebirth of Greek and Roman art. In the Renaissance, artists took key characteristics from both Roman and Greek art styles and used them in their own sculptures, paintings, etc.

I found this statue in front of St. Andrews Roman Catholic Church, in Police Plaza (which is located in Lower Manhattan). It drew my attention as I was thinking about this blog post. It reminded me of the Greek and Roman styles due to its attention to detail; the ruffles and wrinkles in this priestess’ robe. In addition, this statue has, in my opinion, the potential for movement with her hands and a certain archaic facial expression that originated from the Archaic period in Greece and was recreated through several Roman works as well. Going back to this unit in particular, the art piece that this statue reminds me of the most is David by Donatello. Similarly to Donatello’s make of David, it has an archaic expression. Yet this statue is also unlike Donatello’s David in the sense that there is no overt sexuality or sensuality prevalent. Nor is there the presence of contrapposto in this statue. This statue seems to have a simple upright stature with what it seems to be some sort of hand gestures.

Adam in the MET


I found this statue called Adam by Tullio Lombardo in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This statue is made out of marble originated from Venice, Italy, during the Renaissance. Adam is holding onto a log wrapped in ivy with his right hand and holding an apple with his left hand. The statue of Adam is standing in the form of the classical contrapposto but the top half of the statue seems rather stiff compared to the bottom half. Adam seems to have a very strong body with his muscular body a little bit emphasized. Religion had an impact on this statue which is shown by the leaf covering Adam’s genitals. You can tell it has been influenced by religion because when Romans copied Greek sculptures some of them which were also influenced by religion have a similar leaf in the same area of other statues. Adam is connected to the Renaissance because Adam is a religious figure in a period of time where people were very religious but at the same time was challenged by new information. Challenged by people, like scientists, who were finding a lot of new information that challenged religion. This statue is also similar to Michelangelo’s David because of the way they are both standing in contrapposto. Also in the way that they both have rather serious facial expressions and are both holding something that adds to the naturalism of the statue.

-Alvin, Team Venus

Statues and the Masaccio

When walking home from the train station, I came across these statues in my neighborhood that were near my Church that I did Blog post 1 on.  There were 2 in particular that caught my attention.  The first one on the right is one of Jesus on top of the entrance to the Saint Pancras School with his hands up.  The second one is down that block across from my Church, of Saint Mary in a garden.  At first, it may be hard to see exactly how I am able to connect these 2 statues to what we have learned to Unit 3 in class.  When looking at the Jesus statue atop the entrance, I actually found what I consider is some similarities between it and the Masaccio.  When looking at the Jesus Statue, and also comparing it to the Masaccio, it can be seen that Jesus is the forefront of both.  The Masaccio and this building have Jesus to be the main standout and center of their respective pieces.  When looking also at the building where the Masaccio is found, it can be seen that the back or where the altar is has a very similar shape to that of which is the door entrance below the statue here.  I also took a photo of the Mary statue because it felt very similar to the statues of David that we discussed in class.  I found them to be similar because they had both similar movements showing very encouraging stances, while also having a strong representation power to them.

There are a few differences to be noted as well that both of these have.  The Masaccio of course is a picture unlike the statue that I have here.  You also have it representing the death of Jesus while also having the Holy Trinity represented.  I feel that also a big difference that can be seen is in how the statue I have photographed here is meant to be a more welcoming presence from Jesus as the students enter the school, hence why is hands are positioned the way they are, while the Masaccio was more to represent Humanism and the Renaissance.  The big main difference between the Mary Statue and that of David is that of which they represent.  The David statue represents victory, specifically that of David’s killing of Goliath.  Mary’s statue is most likely a representation of all the good Mary has over the earth, hence why she is in a garden.

A big connection I can make to what we are learning in Classics is how we learned about the Roman republic in Classics.  I come from a Roman Catholic Church religion.  The Romans were very big in the creation and spread of this religion.  We know that the Romans were in fact very big on religion and had a large influence over its teachings.  If it weren’t for some of the people and events in Rome, it is possible these statues and others might not have existed today.

#artandclassics #1010unit3

  • Scott Vincent, Team Cronos

Luck of the Irish

One of the most famous churches in New York City is St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Manhattan. This building was built in 1858 and was opened in 1879. This building is built in the Gothic Revival style and was designed by the architect, James Renwick Jr. It has many Gothic features such as pointed arches, flying buttresses, stone, radial windows, cluster columns, and an expansive use of glass. Height and light are main features of Gothic architectures because they represent closeness to Heaven and God’s divinity. Flying buttresses are used to support the walls of the church. This was seen as anti-classical because the walls don’t hold themselves up. In Classical architecture, the walls were able to hold themselves up. One of the biggest differences between St. Patrick’s Cathedral and its historical counterparts is that St. Patrick’s uses an extensive amount of spires. Spires are the points that decorate the building and are commonly seen on church towers. Older buildings, such as Chartres Cathedral and St. Sernin’s Cathedral, do use spires, but not to the extent that St. Patrick’s Cathedral does. Gothic style emerged after the Goths, warriors from North-Western Europe, conquered Rome. Rome was an empire at the time, expanding as far wast as Spain, as far north as present day France, all the way down to Egypt, and all the way to the Caspian Sea. Rome became the most powerful state in the Mediterranean by 146 BCE. The empire’s influence was so powerful that by the time Augustus was emperor, all the other independent states were virtually gone. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the anti-classical Gothic style emerged and emulated the classical architectural styles or Greece and Rome, such as domes and columns. The influence of both Gothic and Classical architecture can be seen in many building through New York and all over the world.

Sources: St. Patrick’s History and Heritage

Architectural Digest Article about St. Patrick’s Renovation

Emily Ryan, Team Mars (16)

The art of linear perspective

6CFE1E2B-A3EB-4E0D-97F2-301A560E1E02.jpegThis is a picture of the streets of SOHO. Looking straight out in front of me, I realized it was a great way to depict the art of linear perspective. If you look closely, it seems as though the vivid colors of the buildings and cars combined with the street itself, fades into the background, creating an illusion of depth in the image. The picture seems to be centered where the street meets the horizon when the surrounding is getting smaller. It truly wonderful to see that after this art class, I am actually beginning to understand art and find the beauty of it in everything around me.

There is not one historical art that would be as similar to match this piece here. The best structure which defines linear perspective parallel to this photo is Brunelleschi’s architectural design of the church of Santa Sabina. If you take a closer look the picture, you can see how logical the image seems to the naked human eye. In both images, you can perceive a centered vanishing point where everything meets together. It creates an incredibly convincing illusion on a 2D surface. The main difference between these two images are their locations and where the photos were taken. Santa Spirito is, of course, a church located in Florence, Italy. On the other hand, the photo I have taken is a random street in SOHO where the Apple Store is located. The picture below is of the interior of a church compared to a street in the other.



Domes, from Rome, to Florence, to New York

If you ever have come off at Borough Hall on the 3 or 4 trains like myself, you may have noticed this building, aptly named Borough Hall. The hall, like many forms of architecture in New York, draws a lot of inspiration from the architecture of the old. It clearly was influenced by the Greek and Roman forms, through the inclusion of Corinthian columns, Ionic columns and pediments. However, when looking at it, I could also see its similarity to the Dome of Brunelleschi, which also featured a ribbed dome. The dome of Brunelleschi was something that was designed to carry the weight of a much larger structure, though the Hall still uses the ribbed form, in order to pay homage of sorts to the architectural endeavors of the old. The dome had been built for the sake of Florence, but was also built because of a deep admiration of a previous generation, similar to how the Borough Hall’s dome was built with the Dome of Brunelleschi’s design in mind. The dome of Brunelleschi was built, having been inspired by the domed architectural structures of Rome, namely the Pantheon. The Pantheon was a structure built during the reign of Augustus, commissioned by one of the Roman consuls, and pioneered in the implication of domes in architecture. Early Florence was inspired by this dome -like form, and used the Roman style of architecture, the ‘all-Antica’ style, in order to emulate a similar style in their Church. The Florentines practiced their revival of ancient arts, through the use of the classical Roman forms of architecture, and the implication of the Florentine style in the Hall demonstrates that the principle of ‘all-antica’ still exists, since the styles of ancient architecture continues to influence the forms of today.

Similar Structure of Dome of Florence Cathedral around NYC


When I was walking to my friend’s workplace in Brooklyn. I was looking around to see if I can find an architecture that might relate to unit 3.  I came across this architecture that reminded of one of the architecture that we learned in class for unit 3. This architecture is located on Driggs Avenue in Broadway Brooklyn.As soon as I saw the dome on the top, it reminded me of the Dome of Florence Cathedral. This picture is relevant because the dome is related to the Dome of Florence Cathedral. The function of the Williamsburg Saving Bank is people use for saving bank.

There are some similarities and differences between Dome of Cathedral Florence and the Williamburg Saving Bank. The Williamsburg Saving Bank and the Dome of Florence both have the similar structural.  The similarities between Dome of Florence Cathedral and Williamsburg Saving Bank is that both are huge. There is lanterns on top of the both domes. For both of the domes, there are oval window around the the dome. The lanterns give lights to the building. The differences is that the Dome of the Cathedral have double shell structure and the inner shell support the outer shell. The outside shell is made of heavy material while inner was made with light material.  The dome for Williamburg Saving bank does not have the double shell. The Dome of Cathedral Florence have the ribs inside while the Williamburg Bank Saving had it outer. The Williamburg Bank Saving interior is circular while the Dome of Cathedral Florence base shape is octagon. The Cathedral the painting had depiction of some bible stories. The Williamburg Bank Saving painting is plain with no figures. There are eight oval window around the dome while Williamburg Saving bank have twenty oval window. 

-Mantaha Mannan, Team Vulcan


The Gates of Paradise, Roman Imagery, and A Synagogue: What These Three Things Have In Common Will Shock You!


This picture shows the doors to a synagogue on West End Avenue of Manhattan Beach. It immediately seemed to me like a much simpler version of the baptistery doors called the “Gates of Paradise,” by Ghiberti.


As you can see, the baptistery doors are decorated with scenes from the life of the Biblical figure Isaac, using linear perspective to add depth to the nearly-flat backgrounds cast in bronze.

The doors in my original picture, however, are much plainer and bear only three repeated images: a wolf, an axe with wheat and other grains, and a menorah. Considering their context, these likely represent objects of cultural significance. The wolf is often a symbol of Joseph (Isaac’s grandson), and the menorah is a religious artifact with hundreds of years of history attached. The axe and grains are a little more vague, but they could be standing in for the strength and beauty (respectively) of Israel and/or its inhabitants. There are no backgrounds portrayed at all, yet the overall effect is strikingly familiar to those acquainted with Ghiberti’s gates.

Both pictures show a set of dark doors embellished with a series of lighter metal images that have relevance to Biblical figures or scenes, organized into rows. Each set of decoration serves the basic purpose of making the doors more aesthetically pleasing, although one (Ghiberti’s) looks like it took much more time and effort because it is so much more intricate. Ghiberti’s doors are much taller and more imposing, whereas the synagogue’s doors are the usual height and just enhanced by the pictures. Also, it is unclear whether the first picture’s images are actually made of bronze, but it does not appear to be the same material as Ghiberti’s doors.

The pictures on my doors could easily apply to Roman culture too, although the context of their placement makes this extremely unlikely as its original purpose. The wolf has long been a symbol of Rome, because of the legend of the founders Remus and Romulus being raised by a she-wolf Lupa. When other powers rebelled against Rome (like the slave revolts Rome claimed were the “reconquering” of Sicily), a coin was made depicting a boar (the symbol of the Italic peninsula) trampling a wolf. The axe could be seen as referring to the axe of the fasces, a bundle of rods symbolizing imperial power, and the grain to the latifundia, a system of plantation farming that kept the Roman economy afloat. The menorah is a traditionally Jewish symbol, but the arch of Titus (pictured below) depicts a menorah because it shows the conquering of Jerusalem and the aftermath of the destruction of the second Temple (which stood on the hill that now holds the Dome of the Rock). Therefore even the menorah could in theory be a reminder of Roman triumphs.


The doors I took a picture of are similar to Ghiberti’s Gates of Paradise and reminiscent of Roman imagery and symbolism. Their purpose is a little more simplistic than the works of antiquity, but overall they are made for the same reason: to look nice.

-Chaya Ovits, team Venus

Brooklyn Bridge



I took this picture around March while walking on the bridge with my mom and sister. While taking this picture, I thought that the bridge from the center point of view looked really nice. This is similar to the lesson about one linear perspective that we learned in class.

The elements of linear perspective are the vanishing point, the horizon line, and the orthogonals. The vanishing point is all the way at the top, near the center, and it is circled in green. The horizontal line that goes straight to the vanishing point is lined in purple. The orthogonals are lined in yellow, they are all diagonals that lead towards the vanishing point.

Linear Perspective in NYC Subways


NYC is filled with subways. We all take it to places around the city. If you stand on the platform and look over to the other end, you can see that the sides of the platform converge together and vanish at the distance. Another thing that can be seen is the sides of the train which come together as you look farther back. This reminded me of what we had earned in class about linear perspective. Linear perspective is a system of art in which parallel lines converge together to create the illusion of depth. But believe it or not, linear perspective is not just seen in drawing or paintings. It is seen in the real world too such as the conversing sides of the subway platform.

Aisha, Team Ares

Modern Churches


This is a church in Cypress Hills that I usually pass on my way home on the train. It caught my attention because of it’s structure and how akin it is to the structure of Renaissance churches. The outside of it isn’t just built for support but for style. The “columns” by the window have no purpose other than to frame them, unlike Greek architecture which was dependent on columns. The structures on top of the building especially sets it apart from the ancients. It follows the more Renaissance theme of grandness. While it still maintained Greek and Roman forms, architecture in the Renaissance had more of an emphasis on mathematics than before. They aimed to make buildings as symmetric as possible. This church is very symmetrical from the foundation up. If it was to be spilt down the middle, the exterior would look like mirror reflections of each other. Although it may not appear to be so from the front, but the roof of the church is flat and the triangular structure is just an illusion.

Linear Perspective From My Perspective

I took this photo when I was walking down the sidewalk to class. When I looked up ahead of me I immediately thought of our art class. 
This image is very similar to linear Perspective in the painting we learned about in class “The Holy Trinity With The Virgin…” by the artist Masaccio. In this painting, Masaccio uses the illusion known as linear Perspective to create a sense of depth and 3D in the painting. 

This photo is similar in that, while it isn’t actually three dimensional, looking at it on a two dimensional screen, one can sense the depth in the photo and which objects are closer, and which are further away. Both images are used for that purpose, to give a false sense of reality from something as simple as an image.

It is different from “The Holy Trinity” because while Masaccio painted a an image he made up in his mind, my image is one of a real place, with real objects and real people. They are also different in that while Massacios image is shown in religious context to invoke feelings of spirituality, mine is purely an illustration of the area from the point of veiw I saw it in. 

Gabriella, Team Hestia 

Grand Central Terminal


Over the weekend, I visited a close friend of mine at SUNY Purchase. I took the Metro North from Grand Central to get there. The ceiling of Grand Central Station, as many have seen before, has a massive astronomical mural of stars and constellations. While I do not believe there is a religious context behind the piece, it did remind me of the Sistine Chapel piece by Michaelangelo that we studied in class. Furthermore, the terminal itself resembles a large barrel vault – another structure we studied in class.

The function of Grand Central Terminal is much different than the function of the churches we studied in class. Grand Central is a transportation and somewhat of a business hub, where thousands of commuters pass through every day. The churches we studied in class have religious purposes, as one could probably infer. I would imagine that Grand Central was built as a massive barrel vault to support the ceiling mural, but I don’t know why this particular ceiling mural was chosen in the first place, other than for how nice it looks. Regardless, it has a different purpose than the Sistine Chapel mural, which tells biblical stories. This mural is like a manifestation of the universe in a way.

-Harry, Team Vesta

St. Jean Baptiste Church

While doing some research online I found the St. Jean Baptiste Church in the Upper East Side of New York. The church stands out from the neighborhood its located in. It looks as if it doesn’t belong in the Upper East Side. However, this is the beauty of art as it brings a piece of the past into the present. I found this church to be very similar to the Cathedral of Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi. You can see the resemblance between the domes of both structures. Both feature similar barrel hoops around the domes. There are lanterns on top of both domes as well. From the interior, both domes are painted with biblical art. I tried to research the structure of the St. Jean Baptiste Church but could not find out if the inside of the dome was hallow with an interior structure to support the dome like the Cathedral of Florence. Both structures also feature tower-like structures around the dome. While the tower from the Cathedral looks like something out of a Disney movie, the tower from the Baptiste Church is used to hold and ring bells. While both structures have similarities, they carry their own distinct features which help connect the past to the present.

-Ahmed, Team Mars


St. Jean Baptiste Church


Cathedral of Florence

Screen Shot 2017-11-14 at 4.16.23 AM


Gothic Church


On the way to school I passed Our Lady Of Refuge Catholic Church at 2020 Foster Avenue, Brooklyn, which is in Gothic style. The top of the roof is pointed as was popular with many Gothic buildings. There is a decorative column in front and in the background you can see part of the spires and flying buttresses that it has.
It is different than the original style because the toweresque fluting on the outside of the building is built into the wall and therefore the walls are holding up the building in addition to the towers. Also the pointed roof is just a triangular roof and in the original Gothic style the roof would have been a pointed dome.
The term ‘Gothic’ comes from the Goths, a tribe that attacked Rome. The Italians believed that the style was a barbaric antithesis of their prized Classical architecture. They, therefore, named the style after the people who attacked Rome. However, as we have learned in both Art and Classics, the term barbarian doesn’t mean a bad wild man necessarily. In Ancient Greece and Rome it just meant a people whose customs were different then what they were used to, so too, the Gothic style wasn’t trying to destroy Classical style. It was simply different than what the Italians were used to.
Hinda Honikman, Team Mars






David: A Reinterpretation of Greatness

David and Goliath: Art1010 Unit 3

1 Samuel 17 tells the story of Goliath of Gath the biblical warrior defeated by the young David in the Book of Samuel. David, a young man, who never fought in a war in his life, defeats not only a champion, but also a giant who everyone fears. It’s a true show of mental and spiritual strength. The biblical story of David closely relates to Donatello’s David in the Bargello, Florence and Michelangelo’s David in Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence that we both covered in class.

Donatello’s bronze statue of David (late 1420s – 1460s) showed him sword in hand, with one foot on Goliath’s head, while Michelangelo’s David (1501 – 04) a marble more heroic nude stand-alone sculpture showed him as victorious and mighty leader and warrior. Michelangelo’s David was a depiction of the biblical hero was unlike that of earlier Renaissance depictions of David, however Donatello’s depiction of his David best represented that of the David in biblical terms. Donatello’s statue was bare and so much more intimate. It was simple and told the true biblical story of David, the young shepherd.

Both of these sculptures were similar. Both Michelangelo and Donatello’s David’s represented war victories: the victory of the Israelites. Both sculptures were made to highlight an accomplishment in history. They are both nude and contrapposto statues. In Donatello and Michelangelo’s artwork, both David’s represents Florence however there is a difference in each Goliath, In Donatello’s, Goliath represents Milan. Michelangelo’s represents Rome during Medici power.

Michelangelo’s David was High Renaissance whereas Donatello David was Early Renaissance. Both statues differed in height: Donatello’s David stands at 5 ‘ 2 and Michelangelo’s stands more than three times that at 17’. The material used by Donatello: bronze differed from the marble Michelangelo used for his. Donatello’s David’s shows humility whereas Michelangelo’s does not.


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David and Goliath: Old Stories Made New – Classics Unit 2

The story of David and Goliath can be related to our Classics class in that it’s a story of many retellings. An old story made new with relatively similar social and/or economic issues. In the article that I read “David and Goliath, A Modern Retelling” by Bryan Allain, the writer was able to capture the story in such an interesting way – Football: American that is. He took the story to a more analytical perspective with the use of a sportscaster. He managed to tell the story using todays understanding. He used football terms that weren’t known then (I doubt “American” football was even known then) such as “David sprinting towards the 50-yard line to meet Goliath, … looks like, umm, an iPhone case?” He incorporated objects and narrative that weren’t used then with ones used now and made the story flow nonetheless. It connected with the original biblical story and brought a new perspective on the social issue.

In the play, Medea the main protagonist of the story has many social issues: passion and rage: revenge and pride. Her husband is leaving her and marrying King Creon’s daughter. She is in misery and doesn’t know what to do. Her social issue is that she shall now be alone and further cast out as a barbarian (foreigner) of the land. – Her social conflict.

The story of David and Goliath speaks of different social issues but social issues nonetheless. Faced with the charge of the Philistines in the Valley of Elah, Saul and the Israelites faced the issue of regaining their land. In the biblical story, “Goliath, the champion of the Philistines comes out between the lines and challenges the Israelites to send out a champion of their own to decide the outcome in single combat, however Saul and his people are afraid of him – their social conflict.

This story of David “Old Made New” comments on the social issues of religion and the capacity at to what it can do. Although the social issues in “David and Goliath” and “Medea” are different, they’re both social issues in everyday lives. King Saul has to deal with burden of Goliath and the Philistines. Medea has to deal with the conflict of being an outcast and being shunned from her community and husband. The search and overcome for solitude best reflects the similarities both pieces have in modern day society.

Venus of Urbino in Titanic

Over the weekend, I was watching Titanic and I came across a scene that reminded me of Titian’s Venus of Urbino (1538) painting. The “Draw me like one of your French girls” scene shows how Rose (Kate Winslet) lays horizontally on the couch across from Jack (Leonardo Dicaprio) in her truest and most vulnerable form (nude). He sketches a picture of her just as Titian had painted a picture of a nude woman, depicted as “Venus”.

Titian’s composition focuses more on color. As shown in the painting, the color of the drapes are green, which also appear across the room on the drawers that hold the Venus’s clothes. Similarly, the red of the flowers in her hand and the red of the cushions can be seen on one of the maid’s dresses. Not only did Titian use color as one of the main factors for creating his piece, but he used perspective and proportions to balance his work. As shown, Venus is the largest figure, meaning she is the most important piece, but the audience can also see her dog by her feet and two maids in the background assisting her in picking out an outfit to cloth her. They are tiny figures, but they help create balance in the composition. Titian uses glazing of the oil paint to give Venus a soft appeal, giving a sense of sensuality.

Jack’s drawing solely depicts Rose as the main focus. The only other objects in the drawing are the couch that she’s laying on and the sapphire pendant around her neck. Similarly, both the sketch of Rose and the painting of Venus show them laying down diagonally, propped up by pillows, staring directly at the audience. Unlike Titian’s painting, where the composition is divided into two parts (showing Venus’s body in the front and smaller version of maids in the back (because of distance) to balance out her body mass), Rose is drawn as the center of attention. In addition, her body is more proportional than Venus’s. Venus’s torso is elongated and more wide and her feet and tiny compared to her body. Rose’s body is drawn more proportionally with precise lines and shading of the nude body.

Both portray the female nude body as a form of art and beauty. Although in modern day society, female nudity is nothing new. It is in music videos, movies, art, etc. In the past nudity was found to be shameful and only sacred to one’s husband behind closed doors.

Relating it to classics, in Herodotus’s Excerpts, Candaules was the King of Lydia. He was so proud of  his wife’s beauty that he wanted to boast about it share it with Gyges, his most trusted bodyguard. He persistently made Gyges look at his wife’s naked body. She caught him and the next day she summoned him. In 1.8-13: How Candaules Lost His Kingdom, the Queen Nyssia proposed, “Take thy choice, Gyges… Slay Candaules, and thereby become my lord, and obtain the Lydian throne, or die this moment in his room… It must needs be that either he perish by whose counsel this thing was done, or thou, who saw me naked, and so didst break our usages.” This was a significant scene because
it led to Gyges making a choice to kill himself or the king because he saw the Queen’s (woman) naked body, which was the most sacred thing about a female. In their culture, the nudity of a woman was perceived as shameful. For Gyges to see the Queen naked was a big deal, leading to Candaules’s demise.

Mary Huang, Team Vulcan

Brook field

artd.jpg                                       This setting was in Brook field in lower Manhattan. I came here to show my cousins from Panama how the architecture was like. This one particular setting that we were upon was a very beautiful day. It was almost sunset and I got a picture of me with a nice scenery. As you can see, the columns become smaller and the view of the sky is shown. This is based on linear perspective caste with a view point from the bottom of the window. This is related to Classics by its Greek Drama like stairs. The stairs right below me casts two tier of circular stairs just like the Dionysus in Greek. With a mixture of Greek and early Renaissance. This is a little difference from our current Orders because these those not have any capital, base, drums, or any design. I think the simplicity of these columns would represent that this building itself is very modern in it’s era. The see through window with an ocean view gives it a very majestic and high novelty. By the way, the window itself shows a linear perspective given the view point and the array that points it outwards. This building is similar to the basically because of its navel and a narthex looking glass.

The Gothic Church


I took this picture when my cousins and I went outside for shopping in Manhattan somewhere, I walked by and saw this building seems like a middle age building, and so I took a picture of it and let it be an option for my blog. The picture above is an example of a gothic building. This building is represented as a gothic building because of its pointed arch. I did not go inside the church so I’m not sure it has a ribbed vault or not and I did not see any flying buttress in the picture, but I believe that those characteristics would be included if I took the picture of the whole church. The modern things compare to this church will be the building behind the church, and also the car. I don’t think car and 20th-century building exists in middle ages. But I believe that they all are buildings except for the car.

Soho’s Perspective


Linear perspective is a way of recreating the three dimensional world on a two dimensional surface. Paolo Uccello had did a study of a chalice and drew what looked three dimensional and this took place in the 15th century. Filippo Brunelleschi re-discovers linear perspective in the early Renaissance circa 1420. Alberti explained the system of linear perspective and wrote a book called “On Painting” in 1435 where he gives the formula for linear perspective. The three elements of one-point linear perspective is the vanishing point, the horizon line, and the orthogonals. Now that we know how what linear perspective is, we can take a look at the painting shown above by the artist Masaccio who incorporates linear perspective and this was during the Renaissance. This is a fresco called Holy Trinity, in Santa Maria Novella, in Florence. Linear perspective creates an illusion of space from a fixed viewpoint which is shown in the Holy Trinity where we would be looking up at Christ since all the diagonal lines appear to recede into the distance. The picture on top is a photo I took when I was crossing the street in Soho today. I remembered that Manhattan has such tall and different sizes buildings all lined up that it would be perfect to take a photo in the middle of the street in order to get that perfect one point perspective image. The photo I took depicts linear perspective really well since the buildings closest to us are the biggest but as you look further down, the buildings get smaller and smaller. That is the same with the cars and the people in the photo. Linear perspective is very interesting to look at because there could be many viewpoints depending on where you are standing. Even the position you are standing can show you linear perspective differently and artists use this to show depth in the picture.

-Raine, Team Jupiter


Augustus and David

Augustus was the emperor of  Rome from 27 BC- 14 AD. He was a very accomplished emperor, as he helped Rome grow into a strong economical and Military force. As a reward for his accomplishments, copies of his sculptures were sent throughout Rome and were made to idolize his greatness.

David was a war hero in Florence, Italy. He was most memorable for his astonishing victory over Goliath. Donatello celebrated his victory by making a sculpture that represented the strength and pious devotion of Florence,

Both of these sculptures are similar. Both Augustus and David represent war victories, as cupid’s dolphin illustrates the naval victory in the Battle of Actium and the warrior’s head that David stands on illustrates the victory over Goliath. Both sculptures were made to highlight an accomplishment in Italian history.

Both of these sculptures are different. Augustus of Primaporta is Hellenistic, whereas Donatello, David is Classical. Augustus is portrayed as a God, as cupid is holding onto his leg and his hand suggests he is pointing up at the Gods. David is portrayed as slightly sexual, as the wing of Goliath’s helmet moves upward towards David’s thigh. Donatello’s Davis shows subtlety whereas Augustus of Primaporta does not.


Frank, Artemis

Look Closely to your surroundings

brooklyn bridge

In unit three, we were introduced with the concept of linear perspectives. Its an concept introduced by Paolo Uccello and  Brunelleschi (re)discovered it. They started in Italy and its a way of recreating three dimentional world on two dimensional surfaces. Details of the instructions were published in a painting manual written by someone named Florentine, Leon Battista Alberti, in 1435. He discussed perspective of formula. He described  one point formula perspectives like Vanishing point, Horizontal line and Orthogonals. It suggest a renewed focus on individual viewer and comes from individualism. We have seen linear perspective being used in many buildings and paintings from the Renaissance period like Masoaccio, Holy Trinity. He was the first to used Bruneleshi’s discovery. In his painting, he clearly shows the main points and the way  lines connect. Throughout the time, we have developed many habits and techniques from our past. People have copied old techniques and habits to make their work better. History is really all around us but with no knowledge of things there is no way to recognized them. Recently I was walking on the Brooklyn bridge. I stood around one of the corners and it was so clear to see the linear perspective. I have been there countless times and not ones did I thought about the linear points. As you look closely, you can really see the horizontal line, vanishing point and the orthogonal. It can be seen from different sides and angles. It clearly shows how unaware people are about their surroundings. We are so involved in our busy lives that we don’t ever notice the past that is all around us. From buildings to paintings, the past is everywhere. The only way to recognize it is to learn and gain knowledge. This class has made me look at paintings and buildings from a whole new perspective. One of the famouse places like this bridge was never this expressive to me. I felt like it was speaking to me. After learnig about the linear perspective, I have been seeing more of it around me. Its something we all can create by taking photographs in a way to mke them look like linear perspective as shown below. It shows a picture of train track. It shows how it all depends on our perspective of things. If people started to take photographs like this and saw things more closely, then they will be able to see linear perspective more easier. I have come to the conclusion that the more you learn, the more alive you will feel. Fizza saeed, Team Hermes


Neighborhood Church Influenced by Greek and Roman Architecture?


While I was riding my bike around the neighborhood with my friends this weekend, I noticed something about this neighborhood church that I haven’t before. In my opinion i believe in some ways it contains features used for Greek and Roman architectures. For example, as you can see at the entrance it features a pediment which is also used frequently as seen on Greek architectures such as the Parthenon and the Pantheon which is a Roman architecture. Adding on, surrounding the St. Marks church it features flat columns. Although it was uncommon for the Greeks and Romans to use flat columns for their architectures and instead they used circular columns, you can see that Greek and Roman architectures certainly had a influence for this church. Adding on, similar to St. Peters Church created by Michelangelo and multiple other architectures during the Italian renaissance it also features flat columns.  As you look at the St. Marks church’s entabliture it contains a cornice, a frieze and a architrave on its entabliture. This is similar to the Parthenon ,Pantheon and St. Peter’s church because it also featured the three elements in its entabliture. Carrying on under the pediment of St. Marks Church it contains some sort of writing on its architrave which is similar to St. Peter’s architrave under its pediment. In conclusion, I found this interesting because I would pass through this church every day when I was going and coming back from school. But never once did I notice that it had any sorts of relations or influences from Greek and Roman architectures.

The Last Will be The First

In The Holy Bible, specifically The Old Testament, in the book of 1st Samuel chapter 17 we find the story of David and Goliath. This story is the tale of a shepherd boy called David who was doubted by many but eventually ended up being triumphant over the giant, Goliath and the Philistines with the use of a slingshot. This, in turn, relates to Donatello’s David. His Statue of David showed him with one foot on Goliath’s head with a sword in hand. Although the statute is not entirely accurate because Goliath’s life did not come to an end by a sword but by a rock, there is a message behind the statue. The tiny David represented the Florentine people and Goliath represented the Duke of Milan and all the other people who tried to take over Florence. In Addition, this represented the freedom and liberties the Florentine people possessed.                                                                -Izadora, Team AphroditeIMG_2184

NYC comes to Las Vegas


Earlier this year, I went on vacation with my family to Las Vegas, Nevada. As we were walking through the hotels, we had stumbled across this painting in an art gallery in The Venetian. The painting was made with the technique of linear perspective. The artist painted this from a high viewpoint to give more focus on the Empire State Building. It also gives the viewers the illusion that there are more buildings beyond to what they can see as they get smaller in the background. The Empire State Building acts as the vanishing point and the horizon where the sun is setting is the horizon line. The orthogonals would all be towards the Empire State Building.

This relates to the historical painting of the Holy Trinity that Masaccio created in c. 1427. He was the first artist to incorporate the technique of linear perspective into his work. The focus in his work was the body of Christ, as well as God as a man in the flesh. This focus on Christ makes him the vanishing point. In the background, Masaccio incorporates ancient Greece and Roman art by painting coffered barrel vaults and corinthian and ionic capitals. The horizon line is beneath the donors and the orthogonals would point upward towards the barrel vaults.

-Estrella Roberts, Team Vulcan

An NYC Courthouse or a Roman courthouse?


It is fairly obvious that the exterior of the Pantheon served as the inspiration for the New York State Supreme Courthouse located on 60 Centre Street. The architect drew upon the classical Roman temple form as the basis for the Court’s structure. A broad set of steps sweeps up from Foley Square to a massive Corinthian colonnade covering most of the front of the courthouse, which is topped by an elaborate triangular pediment of engraved figures. The frieze bears the inscription “The True Administration of Justice is the Firmest Pillar of Good Government”, which I believe is directly quoted from George Washington. This structure and the Federal Hall building we had visited in Wall Street are both very similar to Roman style, specifically the Pantheon. Besides its detail, all three sites provide a grand monumental entrance that screams prominence and professionalism. The traditional style of the pantheon has architecturally inspired many sites ranging from the renaissance era to today, like Brunelleschi’s dome, the Courthouse, and Federal Hall. The facade of the courthouse looks like it was built with granite, which differs from the Roman concrete medium that the Pantheon is comprised of. Overall, I think that the architectural design and techniques used to construct the courthouse correctly represents the building’s purpose and asserts the power of the judicial branch.

-Lauren Ishay

Gothic Churches in the Renaissance 

This is the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, it is a Russian orthodox church in Brooklyn. It’s located on 2016 Voorhies avenue in Brooklyn, New York. I always pass this church while driving and never thought much of it but it really reminds me more of a gothic style church. From other churches that we have previously seen this church gives off more of a gothic look. This is because of its roof and how it is pointed. As we discussed in class the gothic style was all about this space and lighting. The pointed roof makes a illusion that the church has more space and the huge window with a similar pointed shape in the front for light to shine through. This church St. John reminds me of st. Denis’ ambulatory at east end and Amiens cathedral because those church’s has similar designs and how they have very elegant exterior designs and how their roofs looked pointed. Which is similar to Filippo Brunelleschi, dome of Florence cathedral, it’s dome is stretches upwards making it look less of a dome but more pointed and elongated. 

Francesca, Team Cronos 

Quickly Looking By


While quickly going through Manhattan with my dad, I came across this building and was quickly taken by the structures on them. I did not have time to go across the street to get a better picture, this was the best I could do. I found this picture relevant and interesting because inside the building, there is nothing and there were workers doing construction on the inside. There were some parts of it that reminded me of the Renaissance. It looks like it could have been a church because looking at the structures on the front, there seems to be a Pope leading people to a place. On the right of the Pope, there seems to be a bishop or a Saint also leading people. This building also had many windows, which can be a clerestory. This building has a different clerestory than most churches because on this building, the clerestory is not as fancy as other clerestories and it’s more simple. If you look closely at below the windows, there are triforiums. Triforiums are galleries that usually contain a row of columns. These triforiums are different from other triforiums because these are shorter while others are tall. This building also has a Tympanum with structures on it telling a story. This Tympanum is different than most Tympanums because this one is more triangular while the other ones are more curved or rounded.

You Smart, You Loyal.

1024px-Tizian_102[Titian: Venus of Urbino]

IMG_2043.JPG[a picture of my dog]

In the painting of Venus of Urbino by Titian, there is a nude woman laying on the bed. This painting was commissioned by Guidobaldo III della Rovere (the Duke of Urbino) because he wanted to commemorate his loving marriage with his wife. The purpose of this painting is to show off Guidobaldo’s loving and committed wife, who he believes is the ideal wife because of her loyalty to her husband. This picture is relevant to what we are learning in class because of the way society views dogs. in the artwork of Venus of Urbino by Titian, there is a dog by the foot of the bed near the woman. Titian uses this dog to emphasize the woman’s commitment to her husband because dogs are a symbol of loyalty and fidelity since they are considered to be man’s best friend.

– Rebecca Lee, Team Jupiter

“The Madonna of Bruges”

Image result for madonna of bruges

This is a sculpture by Michelangelo, which is called “The Madonna of Bruges.” This image relates to Unit 3, because it includes a work from the Renaissance, and is also part of a belief system. Its is made out of marble, and was built from 1501 to 1504 in Italy. Because of Italy’s accumulation of wealth during this time, which is why the Renaissance began there. The sculpture itself depicted Mary with Jesus as an infant, and this work differs slightly from other representations on the subject. This includes Mary often holding an infant in her arms and smiling down, but in this depiction, Jesus stands upright, without any support. He is only slightly held by Mary’s left hand, and seems to represent an image of him stepping away from her, perhaps reaching out in the world. This sculpture can be related to Masaccio’s “The Holy Trinity”, due to them both depiction Jesus in different forms, and stages in his life. These works were built to send a message, and also be a form of adoration. The details of the work are very specific, as there is texture added to Mary’s cloak, and the curls in Jesus’ hair. Also there seems to be a sense of movement, as if a moment in time was captured, through the detailing of her dress.

Marisa, -Team Ares

Linear Perspective Around the World!


I have few other images pertaining linear perspective, but I thought this one was the most interesting. This image was taken in August 27th, 2016 around 3pm in my country. At the time I didn’t realize how relevant this picture would be in history. Brunelleschi’s experiment demonstrated that linear perspective could produce an incredibly realistic illusion of three-dimensional space on a two dimensional surface. He develops a system with just a few essential elements and through these elements is able to construct an accurate scientific one-point perspective. They include a vanishing point, which is at the viewer’s horizon line as well as serious number of orthogonals. The image strictly focuses on the religious structure (vanishing points). The man to the left seems to be bigger than the temple itself. This supports the idea that objects closer are portrayed to be larger in size than objects far away, even if they obtain similar size. In this case, the temple is bigger. The trees on the left and right draw our attention to the temple as we see it descending in the direction of the structure. This image can also be connected to classics because the structure has Islamic writing on it and non-figural, (the blue) and it consists of several domes (not visible in the image, only two). This is an Islamic temple where people from different countries visit to pray, explore, and appreciate. To conclude, this temple was influenced by Byzantine Architecture in the use of domes to show authority and power.

-Amir, Team Juno

BTS, old made new.

BTS- Blood Sweat and Tears

Everyone has been saying my obsession with this Korean boy band is unhealthy, but I can prove otherwise. While its true that especially American singers don’t have much meaning to their songs, I could argue that BTS (방탄소년단) is different. The more songs they release the more I realize there is a connected story between all of them and that they are trying to tell us something other than just the song. In this blog I will be discussing their hit song of 2016- Blood, Sweat, and Tears (피 땀 눈물) While its true that it is aesthetically pleasing to look at, we shall focus and dig deeper.

To begin with, they are in a museum. Aside the fact that there are several sculptures that were inspired by Hellenistic and Classical periods, there is a big painting that caught my attention.This painting is ‘The Fall of the Rebel Angels’ by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. There is a certain theme of Fallen angels and temptations throughout the Music Video.

The painting this person (Jin) is looking at is very intense. The way I see it is a battle of hell and heaven. Its intensity and emotion reminded me of a painting by Giulio Quaglio, located in Ljubljana Cathedral in Slovenia.


Both of these paintings give a feeling of darkness, as if there is a battle. They are both very intense. Furthermore, this painting by Guilio Quaglio is painted on the ceiling, just like what? You guessed it. Just like the painting in Sistine Chapel, by Michelangelo.


We are not only a minute into the video, but I already found so many things that come from early Renaissance period that started in Florence. This is all about revival, old things made new. I really appreciate how they [BTS] are able to incorporate so many complex things into their music video.

Additionally, fast forward to 3:46, the music video shows someone blindfolding one of the members, and the lyrics go:

Kill me gently,

Close my eyes with your hands,

Cant resist it anyway

Cant even run away anymore

You just too sweet too sweet too sweet

As I previously mentioned the painting of Sistine Chapel, I think there is one fragment about the painting that can be applied here. It would be the fragment of temptation of Eve wanting to bite on the forbidden fruit.


Also, the very beginning of the music video, to tie into the theme of temptations we encounter this fragment:


Behind the neon lights, we see the painting which shows ‘The lament for Icarus’ by H. J. Draper. As we know, Icarus was warned by his father to not fly neither too low, because the humidity of the sea will melt the wax, neither too high as the hot sun will do the same. However, he disobeyed and listened to his temptations and did as he pleased which caused his death as his wings melted and he crashed into the sea. Similarly, both Adam and Eve knew they shall not eat this apple, as it was prohibited by God. Again, they just like Icarus disobeyed and followed their temptations and ate the fruit of knowledge.

Later in the music video, we see one of the members uncovering his eyes, and he walks to a giant statue.. And kisses it. I believe that is him making a pact with the fallen angel, from that point he was able to see everything as it is. Similarly, after Adam and Eve ate the forbiden fruit, they were able to see truly, they recognized their nudity and felt ashamed. Not to sound too cliche, but they were finally able to truly see.

I would like to use this great opportunity and tie in my classics post here. As we learned, ancient Greek theater was always religious, and they would tell stories already known by everyone. As you can see, this music video contains many religious aspects. Just like the ancient Greeks, the producers of this music video in a way retold a story that many of us read in a Bible. They presented it to us in a new way, yet were able to deliver same meaning. Another very interesting scene that I would like to mention is the “Last Supper” scene. 

Here we see them gathered by the table, with all sitting but one. That one that was contemplating through out the entire music video. He has been seen looking at the painting in the beginning, he is also the one to start seeing things as they are, and now he is the one looking into distance. Why is looking into distance significant you may think, well it is significant because he seem to either know or anticipate something. Similar to the “Last Supper” by Leonardo da Vinci.


This is a painting of Jesus eating his last supper before crucifixion. Jesus was aware of his fate, upcoming betrayals and what is awaiting him. Just like this member he knew something was going to happen.

So, this is the end of my analysis. This video contains a lot of symbolism, and it is just impossible for me to thoroughly go over all of them. I gave brief points that I found interesting and similar to our both art and classics classes. It is very complicated, and I advise all of you to watch the video and make your own conclusions. Do you see the similarities I see? You have different theories and analysis? Whether we share similar opinion on this topic or not, the truth. I tried my best explaining, and I hope you’re not confused. 

  • Diana, Team Mercury.

The Fallen Angels

This is a sculpture by  Florentine artist Salvatore Albano titled The Fallen Angels. According to the Text label, the sculpture depicts a sword-wielding Satan fighting alongside the rebel or fallen angels. This corresponds to Unit 3 because the sculpture is in All’ Antica style which is a landmark of Renaissance.

This piece is similar to sculpture from Renaissance like Michaelangelo’s David because it follows the All’ Antica style. It emulates sculpture from antiquity like the idealized depiction of the angels but is not a  direct copy of any sculpture. The subject of this is also similar to sculptures from Renaissance like David because they are all related to Christianity. It is also a marble piece which is similar to its historical counterpart.  Also, the posture of the “angels” in this sculpture is unnatural like the Sibyl from the ceiling of Sistine Chapel. The angels are idealized like they were in Classical sculptures but they are more animated and depicts stories that correspond to the culture of Renaissance.

Despite their similarities, there is much difference between this sculpture and Michaelangelo’s David. The Fallen Angels are part of a sculptural group that tells a bigger story unlike Michaelangelo’s David, which was a single piece made for the Duomo of Florence. Also, this sculpture is more dynamic in its posture than the sculpture of David which was standing in contrapposto.

Masuma, Team 18

The Modern Day Struggles of Being Cupid

“Give Me Love” – Ed Sheeran (Music Video)

Screenshot_20171111-173758   Screenshot (74)


Red Line = Orthogonals.    Yellow line = Horizontal Line,    Green Dot = Vanishing Point

While listening to one of Ed Sheeran’s popular song, “Give Me Love,” I noticed that the song’s music video incorporates many elements from our Art and Classics course.

One incredible development during the Renaissance was Brunelleschi’s system of linear perspective. His formation of lines and diagonals enabled artists and architects to manipulate images into the illusion of reality. Space, shape, and size furthered Brunelleschi’s success of recreating life’s visual experiences into a still image. When looking from any individual’s eyes, our surroundings are examples of linear perspective itself.

In the screenshot above, there are qualities of linear perspective that can be identified with the understanding of how the objects and subjects of the video are seen. At a close observation, the overhead lights form orthogonal lines (red lines) of the image. The light beams move towards the middle of the photo, and direct the viewer’s eyes to the vanishing point (green dot) of the picture. The tunnel walls also acts as orthogonal lines. As the bricks of the walls move towards down the tunnel, the lines become more condensed, and create the illusion of space and depth. The light’s reflections and shadows also add a subtle sense of distance, because the light and shadows seem to merge together when approaching the vanishing point. The outline of the concrete ground also acts as an orthogonal line that points to the vanishing point. Though the horizon line (yellow line) is not obvious to the eye, it meets the middle of the image as the plane where it meets the viewer’s eye level. Touching back onto how the still image depicts distance, the figure in the foreground is proportionally smaller in scale due to the distance between the camera and the subject.

Screenshot_20171111-174127      Screenshot_20171111-173907

When directing your focus to the subject, the woman has a pair of cupid wings that is explored through the music video’s plot. The story unravels references to Aphrodite in which we have discussed in Classics class.

In the music video, the main subject is dressed with a pair of wings and holds a bow and arrow. The video’s plot reveals how she takes on the roll as a cupid and shoots others to fall in love with each other. The subject’s act as a cupid relates to Aphrodite’s abilities to cause people to fall in love due to her title of being the Goddess of Love and procreation. The video’s subject’s actions can be compared to the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite where William Blake Tyrrell translates that Aphrodite’s:

clothed in a dress more gleaming than bright fire. Like the moon, it shimmered around her soft breasts, a wonder to behold. She wore coiled bracelets and shining earrings, and beautiful necklaces were about her tender neck, beautiful, golden, glittering (86-90).

Aphrodite’s presence attracts and seduces those around her, and is reflected in Ed Sheeran’s song. In the homeric hymn, Aphrodite is known to be a elegant, lustful, beautiful, and graceful Goddess that is ineffable. Her powers become a strong influence over other people’s actions and emotions, which can overrule their thoughts and morals. The homeric hymn discusses the consequences of love, lies, and sex that Aphrodite is responsible for. However, most references to Aphrodite are usually the immaculate ideals of falling in love and being loved.

Similar to Ed Sheeran’s music video, the presence of the woman shows her duties as a cupid. She travels around the city and uses her power of love to counteract the dark and bleak night. Those alone begin to fall in love with the people around them, however, it juxtaposes the song’s lyrics. The cupid’s inner conflict and idea of love is enhanced by Sheeran’s song, and convey a more obvious result of love that the Homeric Hymn does not quite relate to modern love. Though the central theme of love is carried out by the woman with the white wings, her job as a cupid is not as fantastical as it seems. The subject of the video struggles with finding love herself, and has a inner conflict while she watches her actions help others fall in love. In the last scene of the video, it’s seen that she has stabbed herself with her cupid’s bow in attempt to make her fall in love. Ed Sheeran’s music video and the Homeric hymn portray a large difference in the society of today and the past. Sappho reveals the struggles of being in love, whereas, Ed Sheeran expresses the struggles of finding love.


Vicky Lee, Team Hermes