Petals and Positive Spaces

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I visited my father in Long Island this weekend and stayed over for the night. I hadn’t been in my room in a while and when I entered I was shocked to see this photo of myself on the wall. This was photographed when I was seventeen and I framed it because the colors of it complimented the teal walls of my room. I didn’t notice at the time that I was playing with negative and positive space.

Studying Les Demoiselle d’Avignon by Pablo Picasso, made me realize just how much the background of the photo was interacting with the subject in the foreground. The pink and red petals are playing with each other while also melting onto my face with the liquid. I am laying in a pool of water with the petals being blown by a fan and swirling around the water canvas.  I didn’t make the connection until now. While Les Demoiselles d’Avignon is painted, this is photography. The subject material of Picasso’s work are some prostitute women in the nude. I created a more personal piece of myself and I am the only subject, multiplied and flipped upside down to further reiterate the idea of positive space becoming negative.

Interestingly, for this photo I came up with the idea after thinking about Aphrodite. I named this piece Aphrodite, and I wanted the red and the pink petals to symbolize love. I wanted the love of the petals to interact with me but I purposefully remained stoic so that I would not be affected by the love surrounding me. This is on film also and it just shows the petals swarming around my head but I am still, indicating that the force of love does not control me, but I can control love. The first time I learnt about Aphrodite was in my Classics class with Professor Yarrow. We learnt about the Homeric Hymn of Aphrodite, and how the the instruments and lyrics represented Aphrodite’s stories of love.

-Mckensi Pascall- Team Aphrodite


Ariadne and Medea, Scorned Women

This painting just so happens to be one of the pieces that I included in my Museum report. It is called Ariadne and was painted by Giorgio de Chirico in 1913. This piece captures the essence of modern art in its rejection of the artistic styles of before. It is a far cry from Academicism, and, much like contemporaries such as Picasso, experiments with different forms that are far more simplified. When looking at this piece, I personally draw comparison to the Les Demoiselles d’Avignon because of such experiments. Like the Avignon, the piece does not hold to the traditional standards of ideal form, yet still draws influence from art forms of the past. The Demoiselles is inspired by the Archaic and Iberian faces and art styles of those time periods and incorporates those styles into its makeup. Similarly, Chirico’s Ariadne is inspired by the Greek statuary and myths of the past. While modernism is shown through a more simplified composition, that evens borders on the surreal, the woman – the titular Ariadne- lying on the stone slab and having traditional Greek robes splayed across her body, reminds us of the Classical Greek statues of women and even the earlier Kourei women of the Archaic period as well.

A major inspiration for the piece was Greek myths. Through this piece, Chirico was able to tap into his Greek ancestry, which he demonstrated through reference to the idealized Greek forms, demonstrating chiaroscuro and the story behind the painting as well. The painting Ariadne, was based on the myth of a woman, named Ariadne, who was abandoned by her lover, Theseus, on the island of Naxos. Though Ariadne is sleeping, the background and general mood of the painting invokes a sense of loneliness, isolation and betrayal. Seeing the story behind this painting allowed me to be reminded of Classics as well. In Classics, we had read another Greek story of betrayal in Medea , by Euripides. Though Medea essentially gave up everything for her lover and then husband, Jason, everything meaning her family and homeland, he decides to abandon her for another woman. Wanting him to suffer for what he did to her, she kills their children as well as his new bride, Glauce, before riding away in her snake chariot, in order to burn a similar feeling of despair into him. Ariadne displays a similar theme of a man betraying a loyal woman like Medea does. And through the modernist interpretation of the myth, the betrayal and loneliness is made all the more palpable.

Image of Medea

Skaie Cooper, Team Ares

Mmmm Oedipus and the Sphinx


While in the museum, I found this gorgeous painting- “Oedipus and the Sphinx” by French artist Gustave Moreau. This painting uses a technique known to us as chiaroscuro. A way an artist uses lights and shadows to emphasize the subject of the painting. We can tell that the subject of this painting is Oedipus, handsome man with ideal body, and the Sphinx, the weird creature. He emphasized them not by just titling this entire composition, but also by the use of lights. The background and foreground seems to be dull and not so important and that is due to the amount of shadows placed in those regions. Not only that, but also the fact that all the light is literally on Oedipus and the Sphinx!

This painting clearly relates to classics. We’ve learned about Oedipus and his victory over Sphinx in the Drama unit, which by the way was my favorite of all. Oedipus defeated the unbeatable Sphinx by solving the riddle – “What is the creature that walks on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon and three in the evening?” Everyone who’s gone to try the challenge never came back as they were killed, however the hero Oedipus gave the answer, “Man,” which then caused the Sphinx’s death.

-Diana, Team Mercury

Baroque Art Metropolitan Museum

The Coronation of the Virgin, Annibale Carracci (Italian, Bologna 1560–1609 Rome), Oil on canvas

This painting is called “The Coronation of the Virgin” created by Annibale Carracci. This painting was dated after 1595 and can be found in gallery 623. According to some of the information from the label, Annibale Carracci, together with Caravaggio, was the most influential painter of the seventeenth century and the main figure in the development of classicism. This picture was painted for Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini (1571–1621), shortly after Annibale’s arrival in Rome in 1595. In it, Annibale brought together two currents of Italian painting: a north Italian sensitivity to the effects of natural light and color, and the spatial organization and idealized figures associated with the Renaissance. Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican inspired the composition, while the figure of God the Father was based on an ancient Roman sculpture. I saw this painting while visiting the Metropolitan Museum.

I saw many amazing paintings at the MET and this one stood out to me because it is a Baroque painting and also because it looks very complex and it took a lot of effort to make the painting look three dimensional. The story said that after Annibale got to Rome, she used the effects of light and color and idealized figures in her painting. The figure of god in this painting was based off of Roman sculpture. Especially because it is an oil on canvas painting. When I looked up the story behind this painting, it reminded me of something we read and discussion about  in Classics class. Along with the discussion of God and Roman Sculptures.

-Adam Allan

Team Ares

Five Women


During a visit to the MoMA, I recognized this painting by Henri Matisse, “Dance”. It is one of the featured works on the Past in Present Tense website! Another work hanging in the MoMA is Picasso’s “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”. These works are very different, but they do have many similarities.

They start out with the same subject, five women. Both use the medium of oil paint on a canvas. Each of these artworks also was influenced by Matisse’s “Bonheur de Vivre”. Picasso was so competitive he created “Les Demoiselles D’Avignon” to outdue his rival artist, while Matisse took inspiration from his own work to create a whole new one. As Marcus Aurelius says in The Meditations, “The wonder of its art is that, keeping within its own limits, it changes back into itself all inside those limits that seems to decay, grow old and useless, that it makes these very things the source of new creations” (Aurelius, 8.50). Clearly “Bonheur de Vivre” was not old and useless, but Matisse still was able to transform it into a whole new creation. Finally, these are both very modern paintings, breaking from the old norms and breaking the illusion of being real.

On to the differences between these works, the subjects are not actually all that similar. Matisse creates a flowing, relaxed party-like feel that is inviting you to join in with the break between the hands. Picasso, in contrast, creates very harsh, angular figures; these women stare you down, clearly not happy that you are disrupting their time. Lastly, the perspective of both of these changes. Picasso’s women can be seen from straight on positions as well as laying down, while Matisse’s is much less obvious. You can see all the women dancing, almost as if you were above them, but at the same time you can jump right into the dancing with them, so you must be on the same plane as them. People can interpret these works very differently, but that is something that makes modern artwork so interesting, almost more lifelike and realistic than the lifelike creations of realism.

-Sheila Kelly, Team Saturn(12)

Surrealism and the Modern Era

The Persistence of Memory

Salvador Dali’s The Persistence of Memory is similar to the works of art that we studied this week in Prof. Simon’s class because of the way that they deviate from the standards of the time. Salvador Dali’s Surrealism very clearly draws heavily from Picasso’s Cubism, as shapes and normal everyday objects are shown in ways that differ quite strongly from the ways that they actually are. An example of this is the melting clocks, as clocks do not melt. This is a common theme in Picasso’s work as well. These deviated from traditional techniques as a work done with traditional techniques would have painted the clocks as well as the tree and cliffs in an incredibly and strikingly real light that would have made it look quite realistic.


-John Jacobs Team Diana

Fractured Planes

The painting that I chose can be connected to Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. They both possess certain similarities and differences with each other.


They both have the technique of cubism. Cubism is reconstructing of three dimensional form and shattering that form and then placing those fragments back on two dimensional surface. The artists of both the paintings use cubism and prevents the use of linear perspective. There is no chiaroscuro i.e the contrast between the light and shadows in the paintings. The main idea depicted in both the paintings is the sexuality and the female nude. The bodies of the figures in both the paintings are pointy and sharp with the form of angular geometry. Although, there is no space behind the figures, there is some sense of illusion in both the paintings. In both the paintings, the female nudes have turned their gaze outward as if they want men to directly focus their attention towards them.


The colors used in both the paintings are quite different. Picasso uses very dull and light colors whereas in the other painting the artist uses very bright colors like red, blue, green, etc. The other difference is the use of brushstrokes. Picasso uses very irregular and heavy brushstrokes which takes away the fineness in the painting. On the other hand, the painting that I chose has very light and thin brushstrokes which makes the panting very fine and regular. The painting that I chose looks more modern because the women in the painting has a curly hair and wears tights and heels whereas in Picassso’s paintings, women are bare feet with simple hair.

The idea conveyed from these paintings is the sexuality and the female nudity. I can connect it to something that I learned in the Classics class. Venus was always shown as a nude figure. She was considered as a Goddess of beauty, sex, love, nudity and even prostitution in Roman mythology. Therefore, the nude figures in these paintings reminded me of  Goddess Venus.

Gurleen Kaur, Team Venus


Godard, Bardot, and Satire


I was in my sister’s room in my house and I noticed this poster. Le Mépris is a film from 1963 directed by French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard starring Brigitte Bardot. The title translates to, “Contempt.”

This poster reminded me of some of the non-academic art we studied in class for our “Toward the Modern” unit, particularly the Olympia painting we studied. While she is not nude, this illustration of Bardot does have sexual undertones. Furthermore, both Olympia and Bardot are confronting the viewer with their gaze. They are painted somewhat similarly as well, as the brushstrokes in the poster are visible and there are fewer shadows shaping the figure. This poster is from 1963, exactly 100 years after Manet’s Olympia was finished, but the influence of Éduoard Manet can still be seen. There is a logical cultural connection here too, as both Manet and Godard were renowned French creatives.

I also want to connect this poster to our last Classics unit revolving around satire. Jean-Luc Godard actually made a satirical film in 1967 titled, Weekend. It is about a rich couple that essentially tries to murder each other. It makes comments on the savage nature of society and the fate of filmmaking itself, all with a dark, humorous tone. I think this, as well as our analysis of The Onion in class, shows that satire has evolved into a genre that can be seen in many different cultures, so it is interesting that we learned about it as a uniquely Roman genre in class.

Harry, Team Vesta

The Amazon Queen


In classics we learned about Penthesilea, the amazon queen,  killed in  war by Achilles.  It was predistined  that Achilles would kill the love of his life and so it happened. Right as Achilles pierced the sword through Penthesilea, their eyes met. He fell in love with her right before she collapsed and died. Looking at this picture reminds of the queen right before the battle. The ferocity in her eyes and the strength seen in her posture, she was ready for war.

This piece also  is an example of modern art.  The mosaic features tiles of different sizes, shapes and colors. This mosaic also is similar to Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28 in the vibrancy of colors used. The differences however outweigh the similarities. Kandinsky’s piece is considered abstract art ( not completely) and can be interpreted in different ways, while, the other art piece tells a story and leaves less room reader for the viewers imagination. Its also important to note that Kandisky’s piece is a painting, while the other art piece is a tile mosaic. The art pieces also evokes different moods. The tile mosaic shown creates a sense of excitement in my opinion, while, Kandinsky’s piece creates a feeling of disharmony and confusion. Both art pieces, though, represent modern art in different styles and forms.

Sharifa Thompson, Team Hestia

Past Politics in Later Art


Image result for Intervention of the Sabine Women Jacques Louis

Jacques-Louis David (French painter, 1748-1825). Intervention of the Sabine Women, Overall view without frame. 1799 (creation), Image: 4/31/09 (creation). Web. 1 Dec 2017.

Just like the modernist age that was discussed in Prof. Simon’s class, there is a political statement within this image. The painter himself was a man who hid many meanings within his paintings, making political paintings during the French Revolution. This was something very common in the modern age, although the traditional “fine art” techniques are still used here rather than more abstract and chaotic methods used within the modernist era. It seems the peace that the women try to bring within the image is the main interest in the subject. Further research states that he made this in a time he was jailed, where the artist stated they wanted to draw something to the more Roman aesthetic.

The quote I chose for this piece specifically comes from Vergil’s book:

“The joyful peace, which put an abrupt close to such a deplorable war, made the
Sabine women still dearer to their husbands and fathers, and most
of all to Romulus himself.”

Although even in the intervention depicted in the illustration, the war still continue to unfold, the quote shows an importance to their role.


During Unit 5 we learned more about the modern world that deviated from traditional techniques. The artist’s strokes became more apparent and the subjects within the painting didn’t look like they were going to bounce out at you anymore. With that, followed abstract art, or even messy looking art that at first glance looked as though it had no purpose in a gallery, but at second glance you can see every stroke had a purpose. This was somewhat the case with Marry Cassatt’s Woman on a Bench. The artist here was trying to capture life as she saw it with the little time she had. It was a form of experimentation, which is something a lot of the modernists art had.

Now if you’re looking for something even closer to present time than that then look no further than the video games we see around us. A YouTuber by the name of The Game Theorists covered such a topic in more detail on a video called Gaming is BROKEN!  …What Comes Next? He speaks of how gaming is following the same pattern as modern art history. As time progressed, games have become more abstract and what could be considered a game or what makes a game is pretty loose with new genres being born.

We have managed to create life-like simulations within games. It looked as though you could almost touch the grass, or a video recording of the real world rather than 3D models generated through a computer. They have done an amazing job at immersing the player, making you feel like you were there, something art had striven to do. As The Game Theorist continues to point out that “…,but with so much progress and games being so beautiful and massive and textures feeling more and more real, where do you go now?”

This is where we arrive at post-modernism. All that progress and innovation removed, a rejection of modernism because “everything and anything can be art”.  We see this same idea in indie gaming today with titles such as Rock Simulator and Pony Island. These are games that break  the rules of what and how to play, and games that know their games. A trend we see in post-modernist art, where art knows it’s art. Even in some of the examples we saw in class, it was discussed that some of the artists purposely wanted you to see the painting as just that, a painting.

The difference between the past and the present is that we have become more interactive with the new art forms out there, after all even video games – something that tell stories like the paintings did – is considered art now a days.


Jacques-Louis David (French painter, 1748-1825). Intervention of the Sabine Women, Overall view without frame. 1799 (creation), Image: 4/31/09 (creation). Web. 1 Dec 2017.

Cassatt, Marry. Woman on a Bench.1881. Pastel on Green Wove Paper.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Art History.

The Game Theorists. “Game Theory: Gaming is Broken! …What Comes Next?” Youtbe, commentary by Matthew Patrick, 26 Nov. 2017,


-Yekaterina Ignatyeva, Team Cronos


Art Under My Cereal.

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As I was looking for ideas to use for my blog post, I came across this image hidden behind bowl full of cheerios. The image in the bowl uses color to draw viewer’s attention to the three ladies and things around them such as the trees, grass, and sky. We see drapery in their clothing, also they are depicted as young and mobile as we sense movement from the two ladies on the side. Similarly, The Death of Socrates portrays use of idealism, color, and movement. For example,  Professor Yarrow informed us that Socrates was about seventy years old before his death, but in this painting Socrates does not look his actual age but instead upholds a perfect male form and beauty. Emotion in the painting varies. For instance, as we look from right to left we see dramatic movements from the people on the right, as we get to the middle we see calm sense of emotion from Socrates who is minutes away from his death. Then we see the man giving him the drink and he seems to be in pain, and then we see the man sitting down faced away from the crowd. In classics, we determined that the man who seems to be disengaged in the scene is Plato. Looking at the clothing of these gentlemen, Socrates seems to be the most nude out of them all. This might symbolize his preparation to sleep on his deathbed. Also, David uses color to differentiate each man’s clothing, and uses Hellenistic era form of drapery as we see in three goddesses of Parthenon. However, David uses sense of light to highlight the subject of the painting. Meanwhile,  in the image above there is no sense of emotion and light. Everything in the image seems to be normal, doesn’t depict historical importance but rather an everyday life of three women.

-Amir, Team Juno

Are those painting really similar?

Echo, Alexandre Cabanel (French, Montpellier 1823–1889 Paris), Oil on canvas




When I went to Metropolitan Museum with my one my group member. I went to the European painting department to look at some of the painting. While I was walking around, I came across this painting named Echo. The artists of the painting were Alexandre Cabanel (French, Montpellier 1823–1889 Paris). When I saw this painting, it reminded me of the painting we saw in class which was the Olympia by Edouard Manet. In Cabanel painting, it looks more naturalistic. Olympia looks more agressive to the audience. Both of the painting are very similar because they both are covered on the bottom.  The function of Cabanel painting is to dipict the nudity of her body and realism. They both were painted in a way which was to show the details of their ideal body. The differences between those two painting are that the painting of Echo painting looks more realistic because the drapes of the scarf look very realistic. Another difference is that the painting of Olympia, she is only covering her bottom part with her hand instead Echo’s is cover with very lights scarf. Also, in Olympia’s painting, there is a servant next to her who is holding a flower while Echo does not have anyone beside her. In Olympia painting, she looks like she is waiting for another customer since she is a prostitute. Her body looks flat and the little bit of dirt on some spot. While in Echo, she looks like shocked.

These paintings are actually related to classics because in classics we learned that Aphrodite was depicted as naked but Greeks would actually use nudes all the time. Also. her nudity shows the nature and power of the goddess. Aphrodite was associated with the love and the beauty.

-Mantaha Mannan, Team Vulcan



Augustus Across two classes

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In art class, we learned about Augustus of Prima Porta. That one sculpture we focused on, depicted Augustus as a God who descended from Aphrodite, with youthful characteristics. He was standing like a spear bearer in contrapposto. One thing that we did not learn in Art Class that came about in classics is the fact that every other emperor that came after him modeled their sculptures to look like him. One thing that historians found is that all Julio-Claudians looked the same until the Flavian Dynasty. The reason for this is because they wanted to legitimize their ruler.

-Izadora, Team Aphrodite

Rape of the Sabine Women



Citation: Corona, Pietro Da. Rape of the Sabine Women. 1627-1629. Web. 11 Dec 2017.

This painting belongs to the Baroque period. It stands out for its theatrical characteristics, the use of colors and light. The painting represents a Roman legend where the men of Rome committed a massive kidnapping of young women from other cities in the region.

Quote: ”The joyful peace, which put an abrupt close to such a deplorable war, made the Sabine women still dearer to their husbands and fathers, and most of all to Romulus himself.”

The quote of the reading differs with the painting because the painting represents the precise moment in which the attack was being committed, while the quote talks about the moment in which the war was over and the consequences that it brought. It is said that women were more valued by their male relatives after what happened. Finally in the painting you can see how the artist represents the violence of the act. On the other hand the quote talks about peace and a moment of tranquility after the event ended.

Jamilex Dominguez. Team Mercury.




Aeneas Carthage

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Perino del Vaga. Venus directing Aeneas to Carthage. early 1530s. British Museum, Web. 11 Dec 2017.

This drawing shows the disguised Venus (mother of Aeneas) and Aeneas itself. Venus advises Aeneas to go to the city of Carthage. She directs him to talk to the queen of the Carthage, Dido who would warmly welcome him and his friends. Aeneas is fleeing away from his native city, Troy which has been destroyed in the war. Juno, queen of the Gods despises Aeneas so she brings various traps on Aeneas’s way so that he cannot reach Carthage. However, his mother, Venus helps him in reaching Carthage and tells him about the queen of Carthage, Dido.

I can connect this drawing to something that I learnt in Art History class. This painting has a linear perspective. Linear perspective is the illusion of three-dimensional space on the two-dimensional surface. Likewise, this drawing does look three dimensional because the orthogonals if made from the floor will meet at one point on the top which is known as vanishing point. The figures such as Venus and Aeneas are much closer to the viewer. The mountains and trees in the background seems far away. This all creates linear perspective. The colors used are white and brown. Colorful colors are not used.

“She looked like a young girl, a Spartan girl decked out in dress and gear or Thracian Harpalyce tiring out her mares, outracing the Hebrus River’s rapid tides. Hung from a shoulder, a bow that fit her grip, a huntress for all the world, she’d let her curls go streaming free in the wind, her knees were bare, her flowing skirts hitched up with the tight knots.” (Vergil’s Aenied Book 1). This quote is very similar to the picture that I chose. Venus in the picture actually looks like a young girl. Both the quote and the picture portrays that her knees are bare and her skirt is hitched up in the tight knots. In addition to the similarities, there are few differences between the quote and the image that I chose. In the picture, there is something that hangs from her shoulder but it doesn’t look like a bow which contrasts to the quote because it says that a bow hangs from the shoulder. In the image we see that her hair is tied with no open curls. However, the reading says that her curls streamed free in the air.

Some of the artist’s own inventions in the drawing are the trees, few animals, people and the mountains. The artist might have added these details to describe the setting of the scene. Since, Venus and Aeneas met each other in the forest, the artist uses these details like animals, trees, bushes, etc. to the convey the idea that that they are in the forests.

The two figures, Venus and Aeneas most interests the artist. Since they are the main subject of the work, he draws them the way they look with all the characteristics that they actually have. There are movements in their posture because they both are pointing their arms and legs in forward direction which depicts that Venus is directing Aeneas to Carthage. The homework texts also has Venus and Aeneas as important figures because the text is all about Aeneas’s journey to Carthage and his mother, Venus helping him to reach there.

Gurleen Kaur, Team Venus

Manet and Courbet


Édouard Manet, Olympia, 1863, oil on canvas, 130 x 190 cm (Musée d'Orsay, Paris)
These two works of art are similar in which they both feature a woman. In Woman with a Parrot, the artist Gustave Courbet was criticized for lack of taste by dull colors, postures, and hair texture. Courbet went against the origins of proper artistic form that were crucial at his time. He wanted to create something, not perfect or idealized but different for the viewer. While he was criticized for these factors, Edouard Manet was also criticized. His painting of Olympia was more so a rebellious movement of art. He went against the idealized Venus body, the rendering, and the perfect appeals. Manet was trying to show the true desire of a man, seen by his painting. Both painting shows a form of movement going against the true value of art and brings the connection between the artist and the viewer. Another similarities is the usage of chiaroscuro by both artists.

The rendering of these two drawings are different. While Courbet painting emphasizes more of the dull flesh of the woman, Manet wanted a more emotional appearance for the reader by the way Olympia is being portrayed. Her characteristic such as dirty hands and the origin of her name gives a feeling of normality. Such that she is the face of a true woman. In contrast to Courbet who shows more of a perfect rendering of the woman with a parrot on her hand. She seems to be more on the noble side while Olympia is seen more of a prostitute.

Most female nudes were portrayed as Venus because beauty was found in her. As Manet breaks the image of what we are so used to, the public uses catharsis to change their actual feelings about it. Catharsis is the release of a 3rd emotional element, providing relief or strong emotion. Manet used his this form of catharsis by using his emotional feelings of the beauty of art and woman to a sexual reality of his inner desires. Olympia is the product set by his catharsis as a relief of his over flow of sexual desires.

The Lady and the Sea Monster

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Domenico Guidi (Italian, 1625-1701) Commissioned by Francesco II, Duke of Mantua and Reggio (Italian, 1660-1694) , who died before the sculpture’s completion. Andromeda and the Sea Monster. 1694. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Web. 11 Dec 2017.

This sculpture, though made in the Common Era, resembles traits of a Hellenistic sculpture from Ancient Greece. The depiction of Andromeda in this fluid like movement is very common in Hellenistic style art as well as noticing how the free-standing Andromeda is much like new upcoming sculptures in BCE. Having the subject in the nude like so relates to how the Greeks shaped their art to show how the human body should be shown off as such, as it is in the Gods image.
This piece of art can relate to a quote from the Vergil’s Aeneid, Book 1:

“Her fury inflamed by all this, the daughter of Saturn drove over endless oceans Trojans left by the Greeks and brute Achilles. Juno kept them far from Latium, forced by the Fates to wander round the seas of the world, year in, year out. Such a long hard labor it was to found the Roman people.”

The sculpture of Andromeda is in relation to Greek art, and not Roman art. We can clearly tell by observing how the breasts of Andromeda are revealed and not hidden by shrubbery. Greek and Roman themes do relate sometimes, where we can see how Andromeda, goddess of dreams, who usually accompanies with Poseidon, can be like the daughter of Saturn. Both are strong mythological female figures, with relation to “driving over endless oceans” They differ from their cultural origins, but both parts of Greco-Roman mythology can be connected.

The artist wanted to try his best, from a 17thy century perspective, to copy an old time Greek sculpture to the best of their ability. The artist Domenico Guidi, was a prominent Baroque sculptor, who had a short life as an artist. His intentions for creating art are not that important for the relation to Roman era literature, since they are two different time periods.

Sean Reilly, Team Artemis

How don’t you know? Bruh


I interviewed about eight people from different ethnicity and chose the most informed answers to include in this blog post, even though they aren’t well informed.

Noor Fawak, Libary Laguardia Room, Monday afternoon

This girl is a Muslim American woman of Syrian heritage but she was born here. When she was younger, she traveled back to Syria and attended school for four years. During that time, she discovered that Syria was being led by ignorant oppressors. She considered the hero to be the everyday people who wake in the morning and challenge the oppression. Syrians has been controlled by the Asahd family for a long time and finally people decided to speak up against this form of control. So the lesson she learns from this is never give up, pursue what you believe in. “Even though its not worth it because we’ve lost a lot of blood, we can’t stop now, we cant let it go to vain right now.”

Anastasiya Lyubimova, Library 2nd Floor, Monday afternoon

This girl is Slavic born in Russia. She reads books and watches documentaries about Russia on her free time. As to Russian leaders, she says they didn’t have any prominent rules or law givers. However, there was the sar regime family that was well respected by the people. Also, she respects Dostoevsky as a hero because he captures the Russians souls in his writing and suffering of the people. According to her, there were many stories of him being a great author, maybe the best of his time and he was non comparable. The stories that she hears of him inspires other people and allows them to understand the mentality of the Russians. She has learned that expressing yourself is a good way of living.

Samantha Blafford, Library 2nd Floor, Monday afternoon

This girl is third generation Italian-American. She learned little of Italian history in her language class. Although she doesn’t know anyone specific, she knows that people from the Renaissance, artists, and musicians basically shaped the culture that she has now. I was kind of disappointed with her answers because i expected someone from Italy to know their history and tell me about few common stories, but nope.


I expected a lot from the Italian girl because some of the great artists that we learned in Art1010 were Italian such as Michelangelo, Masaccio, Caravaggio and etc. Roman culture was reflected their arts. For example, change in culture meant change in style therefore, as culture advanced so did their statues, paintings, and architectures.

Roman empire made up parts of Europe such as Spain, France, and Italy. Roman was a place of power where their army conquered a lot of land and empires. To compare this to Russia, Russia was once known as the U.S.S.R. it had many countries as one. Now that each country has succeeded from the ‘union’ making up their own country, following their own rules, and have their own freedom, Russia is now a single country under the rule of one president, Putin. Romans were similarly ruled by one man, the King. Every leader of a country has their duty and they are pressured to accomplish it. For example, in the reading it says “But Aeneas, duty-bound, his mind restless with worries all that night, reached a firm resolve as the fresh day broke.” This even Syrian people as they’re to fight for their freedom, they have to if they want to live freely. They wake up everyday not knowing what might happen that day, in constant fear.

-Amir, Team Juno



Alexander and Marat


This is a bronze portrait of Alexander the Great I took at the Metropolitan Museum. Alexander the Great was a Greek emperor that conquered many regions. He is widely known for his victory over the Persians and colonization in parts of Egypt and Asia. He eventually died in 323 BC but his legacy still lives on.



This is a painting of the death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David.  This made during the French Revolution, as many radicals were speaking out against the French government. Marat, a French radical, is seen murdered in his tub. This was due to a woman murdering him in his tub. David balances his body, as his painting shows anatomy and is secular.

These two images share similarities. Both images portray men associated with war that were viewed as heroic. Alexander was viewed as heroic by the Greeks and Marat was viewed as heroic by French martyrs. Both images are academic. The bronze portrait of Alexander is muscular and pertained to the important beliefs in Greek society. The Death of Marat is also muscular and was ideal during the French Revolution.

These two images are different. The portrait of Alexander was made to illustrate success and victory whereas Marat was made to illustrate death and the dangers that the Revolution brought. Alexander’s face is very straight and proper whereas Marat’s body is dismantled and is uneven.

This portrait of Alexander can be compared to what we learned in Classics. In Classics, Alexander the Great was portrayed as a hero that was idolized by many. This portrait is an idolization of Alexander, as his face is veristic, detailing every strand of hair and every wrinkle on his forehead. In Classics, we learned that many Hellenistic kings praised his accomplishments, as the text label under the portrait says the same thing.


Frank- Team Artemis

Barbaric paintings?

When I visited the Metropolitan Museum of Art with my group for the research paper, we stumbled upon this painting in the Modern and Contemporary Art section. This painting is called Reclining Nude and was made by an Italian artist named, Amedeo Modigliani. Although his work was inspired ‘Italian Renaissance representations of Venus and other idealized female figures,’ as stated from the art label, it reminded me of Olympia by Edouard Manet. Both paintings are swayed against classical traditions of how female nudes were represented. For instance, female nude paintings were influenced by Greek mythological figures or someone who had power affiliated with them. They also were painted with details to make a woman’s body perfect or ideal. Modigliani’s painting focuses more on her eroticism by mainly focusing on her upper body and having her eyes closed, as if she were moaning. Modigliani also ignored previous standards by painting her with underarm hair, which was not typically seen in paintings. Manet also disregards previous beauty standards of female nudes by creating a painting that is considered flat and portrays a prostitute that is waiting for her next customer. She is staring directly at the viewer and lacks the typical soft gaze that is present in female nudes.

These paintings allowed me to relate it to the concept of “the Others” that we learned about in Classics. We discussed that Non-Greeks were considered barbaric and uncivilized because they were different from the Greeks, who considered themselves perfect. There was a negative connotation towards them just because they weren’t seen as the same as they were. But although these paintings weren’t said to be bad, they still went against what was seen as ‘normal’ during a certain time period. Not to express that it’s wrong to be different from societal standards, but these paintings were “the Other” from Academic or traditional art as the “barbarians” were to the Greeks.

-Estrella Roberts, Team Vulcan

A Trojanpiece

1871.35, 292

Apollonio di Giovanni di Tommaso, Italian, Florence, ca. 1415/17 – 1465. Aeneas at Carthage. ca. 1450. Yale University Art Gallery, Early European Art,, University Purchase from James Jackson Jarves. Web. 10 Dec 2017.

This piece shows the different parts and an overall summary of Aeneas at Carthage from Virgil’s Aeneid. From left to right you see Aeneas, Dido, the construction of Carthage, and a glorified Rome. Dido is in the temple of Juno meeting Cloanthus along with other Trojans. In the temple you can see a part from the Trojan war that shows Achilles dragging Hector’s body. You can also see the wooden horse that was used to get into Troy. In the glorified Rome, you can clearly identify structures like the Santa Maria and Pantheon that we’ve learned in Art History. This piece also gives us an example of linear perspective as was discussed in a previous class. Your eyes are led straight into the middle of the scene on the gold piece in the center.  The paining tells a story throughout with different scenes, but your attention gets focused on the center, at the temple of Juno.

The part that stood out most interesting to me was what was going on in the temple of Juno. In the story, we read that when Aeneas arrived at the temple, it was truly amazing. According to Virgil’s Aeneid, Aeneas comes across something, “—all at once he sees,
spread out from first to last, the battles fought at Troy, the fame of the Trojan War now known throughout the world.” While exploring the temple, he sees the battles at Troy which we can see in the painting. This was very painful for him to look at, as he was brought to tears. The painter probably decided to show because this turns out to be an important part in the story. Aeneas spends a good amount of time examining the battles and being “spellbound” as brought out in book one. Later on in book two, we have Aeneas explaining to Dido what happened at the Trojan War. This is the centerpiece of the painting that ties the whole work of art together.

Ivory, Team Artemis

Olympia Sisters

CEC4C213-1AF1-442F-94EB-9D08B02721AEThe painting of A Woman with a Towel by Edgar Degas is found in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Here we have a nude image of a woman who stands coyly, facing away form her spectators. The woman’s curvy figure twists in an effort to move. The sudden, sharp brush strokes gives the painting a needed shape and texture. It also creates movement and reveals the layers of color the painter used. The name, A woman with a towel, arose from what I believe the painting was made for; to appeal to the collector, specifically the men. She shows apparent form of contrapposto taken from the classical era.

I found this painting most similar to Edourd Manet’s version of Venus, Olympia. The influence of classical movement and color in both paintings create a small link between the two. The painting of Olympia is a lot more softer and lacks any added texture. It also uses more paler colors focusing on details as compared to A Woman with a Towel. Olympia is also less idealized and appealing to the viewer as opposed to Degas’ artwork. Another fact I found interesting was that Degas used his fingers to smudge and scrape his painting to give the illusion of texture, meanwhile Manet did not.

The difference between Olympia and A Woman with a Towel remind me of what we learned in classics concerning women in Roman history. These women had no position in public, and no written accord in history. They were of no importance than to be a tool in bonding families and to please their husbands. Hence, because names were really important to Romans, all the women in the family had the same name. The idea behind Monet’s painting of Olympia was meant to make the public more aware of the making of art as opposed to drawing attention to the sexuality of the woman. Furthermore, Olympia was made as a representation of the Goddess Venus. The Romans would have found this painting to be a fraud because it was to symbolize the birth of the goddess, Venus. Olympia, on the other hand, is more open with her demeaning gaze. She would seem notorious for the way she looks directly at us as compared to the woman with a towel who shyly averts her gaze. Olympia’s hard gaze would have been thought as atrocious to the Roman men because they would not even have seen a painting of a nude woman.


Khilola, Team Juno

Lucretia’s Downfall

Screenshot 2017-12-10 at 10.57.53 PM

Citation: Crespi,Giuseppe Maria. Tarquin and Lucretia. c. 1695-1700. Web. 10 Dec 2017.

This image is called Tarquin and Lucretia by Giuseppe Maria Crespi. This painting was created c. 1695-1700 during the Baroque art period. The Baroque period in art was a period in art where artists depicted biblical and mythological stories and used dramatic realism and illusionism to engage the viewers looking at these paintings. Many of these painting achieved this effect by using dramatic lighting and tightly cropped compositions. This painting depicts the scene when Sextus Tarquininus rapes Lucretia, the wife of Tarquin’s fellow soldier and who later killed herself after being raped by Tarquin. An indicator that this painting is from the Baroque period is its use of chiaroscuro lighting. Chiaroscuro lighting is an extreme contrast between light and darkness. It can also be identified as a Baroque painting because of its vibrant use of color. This can be seen in the gold of Tarquin’s clothes and the blue of Lucretia’s dress. This painting also uses tightly cropped composition to show the struggle between Lucretia and Tarquin.

This image depicts a scene from Livy’s Book 1. In this book, Livy tells the story about Tarquin and Lucretia. In the story, Tarquin becomes obsessed with Lucretia after her husband describes her beauty and lets him watch her weaving with her maids. He then sneaks into her room when she is sleeping, threatens her life by saying that he would kill her and a slave and say she was an adulterer, rapes her, and then leaves. After the rape, Lucretia sends a messenger to her father and her husband to come home because something terrible happened. When they come, she tells them what happened and makes them swear to avenge her. They agree to avenge her and inconsolable in her grief, she pulls out a knife and kills herself by stabbing herself in the heart. Before she kills herself, she says, “Nor henceforth shall any unchaste woman continue to live by citing the precedent of Lucretia” (Livy 11). This means that she does not want to be seen as an unfaithful woman and to prevent from being seen as one, she killed herself.

There are many similarities and differences between how the painting and the story depict the scene. One similarity between the depictions is that both depict the rape in Lucretia’s bedroom. Another similarity is that both depict and convey the feeling of fear that Lucretia was feeling and the aggression of Tarquin. One difference is that in the story Lucretia is woken up from her bed and was frozen in fear. In the painting, Lucretia appears to be wide awake and fighting Tarquin’s advances. This appears to be the artist’s own invention to make the painting more dynamic, rather than having Lucretia just sit there while Tarquin threatens her with a sword. By making the painting more dynamic, the viewer is more engaged in the story and the painting. Another difference is that Tarquin threatens Lucretia with a sword in the story and in the painting, Tarquin doesn’t have a sword. The struggle between Lucretia and Tarquin is what interests Crepsi the most. Livy is more interested in the threats that Lucretia received from Tarquin and the after effects of the rape rather than the actually rape itself. Through these details, Livy and Crepsi are able to vividly describe the rape and death of Lucretia.

-Emily Ryan, Team Mars

There’s Something About The Atmosphere…

whyyy    some craziness

The picture depicted to the left of Jacques-Louis David’s “Death of David” portrait is from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in Manhattan, New York City, and is titled, “Everhard Jabach and His Family,” by French Artist Charles Le Brun. This incredible piece is in some ways similar and different to the French Revolutionary’s political piece. They both exhibit extremely alike traits in structure, while also displaying different characteristics to the other.

Summary of Le Brun’s Painting: The artist portrays Jabach’s interests by combining the wealth and popularity of Dutch and Netherlands Art. The artifacts around the disarrayed room are not all French, but the organization with which things and persons are organized reflect on French portraiture. The main subject of the painting, Jabach, is accompanied by his wife and children.

The two paintings display multiple similarities. Firstly, they both possess the same medium: were painted with oil on canvas. The use of this medium allowed the artists to create luminous blends with colors, and show significant contrasts between elements of the piece. Furthermore, they are similar in that they both exhibit the chiaroscuro technique. This technique, which is the contrasting of light and shadow created by light falling from a particular direction, is shown in both artworks. David’s piece demonstrates the use of chiaroscuro, sometimes called tenebrism, with light shining from somewhere in the middle of the western part of the picture (left side), creating shadows on the right side of the image for Marat’s body, the sheets and the letter. Similarly, Le Brun’s piece shows of this technique with a light source from the left part of the picture, resulting in shadows appearing for Jabach’s collectibles and his family.

The paintings display multiple differences as well. David’s “Death of Marat” Painting just comprises of his old, slain friend, in a tub with a note. In contrast, Le Brun’s “Everhard Jabach and His Family” contains Jabach, his family, his Dutch and Netherland collectibles which he admires dearly, and his dog. These two differences are essential in introducing a next major difference between the two. Le Brun’s piece has a sense of tranquility and togetherness, with both his family and his prized possessions, meanwhile David’s has a much deeper atmosphere; it is one of grievance and injustice.

Jacques-Louis David’s painting relates to Classics in a very unique way. This painting was composed in a time of political uproar in France. David, who was part of the revolutionary group known as the Jacobins, contributed a great amount to the spreading of the ideals of the revolution, but this group was later squashed by the French Government due to issues within the rebellious group. Fortunately, David was jailed, instead of being executed like many of the others. He was later released by France’s new ruler at the time, Napoleon Bonaparte. The young, “great” general could be compared to one of the most powerful leaders we have learned about in our Classics class, Alexander The Great. Both leaders are related in their success and respective reigns; Alexander, although young, conquered a great deal of the world that was known in his day and was well-respected for his military and diplomatic intelligence, while Napoleon, also young, had a long string of military victories, including against the likes of Belgium and Austria. They both are seen as great leaders.

-Daniel, Team Diana.

Lucretia and Olympia


Lucas Cranach the elder. Lucretia. 1532. Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Wien, inv. 557.. Web. 9 Dec 2017.

The work of art I found is entitled, Lucretia it was created by Lucas Cranach the elder in 1542 and is a painting; the medium is distemper on wood. The description relates that’s the painting depicts a “Roman noblewoman and wife of Tarquinius Collatinus, [who] killed herself after being raped by the son of Tarquinius Superbus, last King of Rome.” The artist Lucas Cranach the elder is German (Western) and the year competed is during the Renaissance. There was a re-emergence of the significance of female nude as a genre during the renaissance in Western art.  Though it is supposed to be a somber scene, Lucretia is painted nude, distracting the audience with her idealized body. She appears soft which enhances the sensuality and sexuality of the piece. She is standing in contrapposto and a motion like stance. Also she is holding an extremely sheer piece of fabric in her left hand as it rests over her right forearm and the sword that she is soon going to drive into her chest is in her right arm. In her face we can sense her sorrow, tilted head and her drooping sad eyes gazing off into the dark space. The background is dark almost black, adding to the dramatization of the scene.

In Edouard Manet’s Olympia of 1863, though it is three centuries after, the female body was and still is objectified in art. It is viewed and represented as a symbol of fertility, sexuality, sensuality, and seductively. This tradition goes all the way back to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Olympia is a prostitute and unlike Lucretia, her body was not painted to be idealized or perfected. Manet challenges those established ideas and simply paints a real woman in an apartment in Paris. Instead of standing like Lucretia, she is laying down. She is painted to look quite flat and angular and we can’t see any brushstrokes. Unlike Lucretia, Olympia is gazing directly at us which blatantly emphasizes her sexuality.

Livy book 1 describes the account of Sextus Tarquinius raping Lucretia and her suicide. It all began with his obsession with Lucretia. One night when he along with other young princes were drunk, Livy states, “Not only her beauty but also her proven chastity spurred him on” (Livy 161). When he caught her alone, he threatened to kill her if she didn’t sleep with him and murder a slave and place him naked next to her naked as false evidence that she committed adultery and to ruin her reputation. So, she allowed him to rape her, called her father and husband afterwards and told them what had happened so that her name wouldn’t be tarnished. The account goes on to say that they found her sitting, with tears in her eyes quite different from Lucas Cranach the elder’s rendering of her. Also unlike the painting, she wasn’t alone when she killed herself as others were attempting to console her  by, “shifting the guilt from the woman who had been forced to the man who had done the wrong” (Livy 164). One last difference between the painting is that while she is nude in the painting, the literary version describes her to be clothed. “She took a knife that she had hidden in her garments and plunged in in her heart” (Livy 166). I infer that the artist made this choices to add to the dramatization of the scenes depiction and to the sensuality of Lucretia.

– Chanté, Team Venus



Cant live like this

Screenshot 2017-12-09 16.36.23Philippe Bertrand (French, 1663-1724). Lucretia. 1704 or earlier. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Web. 9 Dec 2017.

The image above is a sculpture of Lucretia stabbing herself in the chest. She is sculpted as a fluid figure. She has an ideal Roman body. Her dress sticks to her and flows without concealing her body similar to that of the “Three goddesses from the east pediment of the Parthenon”. Although that sculpture was made to accommodate slope of pediment, the sculpture of Lucretia was not. However this sculpture also leans in a slope. The clothe hanging off of her hand looks very thick as opposed to the one her body which appears thin.

“They found Lucretia sitting in her bedchamber, grieving. At the arrival of her own family, tears welled in her eyes. In response to her husband’s question, “Is everything all right?”, she replied, “Not at all”. (Livy 58)

This image is similar to the text because it show Lucretia on her “bedchamber” and the grief in her face. It showed the outcome of her pain. The difference between the picture and the quote is the time frame, she hadn’t stabbed herself yet.

The artist made her head lean back and her face the way it is to possibly portray her grief and to make it more vivid to viewers. He also left one of her breasts uncovered, that may have been his way to portray the feelings Lucretia had, that she was not honorable anymore. It seems to be that the artist interest was to show Lucretia ending her life. I think this was the most important part of that text. She killed herself to show “unchaste” women it wasn’t acceptable to live life after such a horrible event occurs to you.

-Anora, Team Diana

The Abduction

Nicolas Poussin, French, 1594-1665. The Abduction of the Sabine Women. probably 1633-34. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Web. 8 Dec 2017.

This painting “The Abduction of the Sabine Women” by Nicolas Poussin depicts the story of the rape of the Sabine Women. This is the moment where Roman men abducted Sabine Women to take as wives and start family, as the Romans are fighting off the women’s husbands and fathers. This art work was painted in 1633-34 which would have been during the Baroque period. Professor Simon has taught us that with a new era come a different type of art style. How during the Baroque period new methods such as chiaroscuro lighting which created more emotion to the subject came into play. The painting uses methods such as chiaroscuro lighting and you can see the constraint between the light and the dark that the shadows are creating, making the piece more dramatic. The artist is also trying to play with linear perspective by showing the people father away in the background fighting by making them smaller, creating depth.

The quote I choose was from Book one of Vergil’s Aeneid that says ”Then it was that the Sabine women, whose wrongs had led to the war, throwing off all womanish fears in their distress, went boldly into the midst of the flying missiles with disheveled hair and rent garments. Running across the space between the two armies they tried to stop any further fighting” like the quote the image is showing the throwing of women, you can see the destress in their bodies and how it looks like they are fighting back to get away. You can see the intensity of the men fighting just the the quote is describing. I think the artist added a lot of details to the Romans muscles making them seem stronger to show their power over the women and men. The artist also added children and it really shows that these women are being taken away from their families. However in the quote they make it seem as it was the Sabine’s fault for not giving the women to Romans in the first place. In the art you see more ofthe brutality of abducting these women.

Francesca Faiello, Team Cronos

David’s Message

Intervention of the Sabine Women, painted by Jacques-Louis David

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Jacques-Louis David (French painter, 1748-1825). Intervention of the Sabine Women, Detail, Romulus, the king of Rome with youth in Phrygian cap and horses. 1799 (creation), Image: 4/31/09 (creation). Web. 8 Dec 2017.

This painting is similar to a painting we learned in Professor Simon’s class, which is also by Jacques-Louis David. It is called “The Death of Marat”, a revolutionary painting created during the French Revolution, which depicts a contemporary event. It is especially revolutionary because it substitutes the iconography (symbolic forms) of Christian Art for more contemporary issues, and before this David mostly painted scenes from classical antiquity. In the Death of Marat, David’s slain friend is shown as a martyr and hero of the revolution and not of Christianity.

This painting of the Sabine Women relates to the painting of Marat because the story of the Sabine Women is used to advocate the reconciliation of the French people after the French Revolution. After the second year of the revolution, Revolutionaries had begun to turn on each other and behead one another, so this painting was a means of reconciliation, as it shows the Sabine Women intervening and bringing the violet war to a halt so that the Sabines and Romans could reconcile.

From Vergil’s Aeneid, Book 1,”Then it was that the Sabine women, whose wrongs had led to the war, throwing off all womanish fears in their distress, went boldly into the midst of the flying missiles with disheveled hair and rent garments.”

In both the image and the literary version, we see the Sabine Women amidst the chaos of the war, as the quote says. Between all the spears, horses, and armed men, we see women, with so much determination on their faces, similar to the quote’s statement that the women had thrown off their fears. As the description says, “Hersilia is leaping between her father Tatius, the king of the Sabines, on the left, and her husband Romulus, the king of Rome, on the right.” As the quote says, the women intervened to tell the Sabines they were fine with their new Roman lives and husbands.

Jacques-Louis David depicted the episode of the Sabine Women intervening because he wanted the French to reconcile with one another. He wanted the people of France to see the intervention of the Sabine as a “pictorial manifesto” and what he did was, he made his painting appear less Roman and more Greek, so as to make his painting appear less severe, and more ideal and kind.

This was the most important purpose of his painting, and this also the most important message received in the text. The Sabine Women boldly intervened to stop the violence of the war and that’s what David wanted the French revolutionaries to understand.

Isra, Team Minerva

A Modern Conception of Romulus and Remus


James Barsness. Romulus and Remus. 1993. Web. 7 Dec 2017.


The piece above is found at the Frumkin/Adams Gallery in Manhattan on the first floor. It is a contemporary piece depicting Romulus and Remus the brothers who founded Rome and were raised by the she wolf. This painting is similar to the ideas we viewed in class because Academic art was often limited creativity and would be realistic and have us as the viewers thinking we are looking through a window. This is a non-academic piece because the figures are blurry and the strokes are very defined and not well blended. Their bodies are also crunched up and in the nude. Also like some of the contemporary art we looked at the figures are looking at us and making us realize we are looking at a painting. How ever it differs because the figures can be depicted and not so abstract that we have to imagine their shape. Also like some of the pieces we looked at there is no use of cubism, the figures have soft curves that are more realistic than sharp angular shapes.

The quote I chose for this photo is from Livy Book one section four paragraph two, “She gave the infants her teats so gently that the master of the royal flock found her licking them with her tongue.” This quote relates to the image because the two boys have this wild look in their eye and have an animal like feature to them because they were nurtured by a she wolf. However it differs because the quote is describing that event and the painting seems to be after that event because they look like they have grown and they aren’t nursing off of the wolf anymore. The artist intentions could have been to show how the animal instinct still lingered in the boys. Also the way they are so close together and in a timid pose is how two wolf could act when being watched. It shows how the finders of Rome were rough and tough and had an amazing bringing up. She also could have left the brush strokes like she did to almost look like hair or fur. I feel the artist was most interested in this aspect to make them look like they have that animal instinct still in their eyes. In the text the interest was describing them in their later years and how they shaped Rome and what happened later; unlike the artist who wanted the animal instinct to be remembered. Emma, Team Saturn

A Grotesque Image

Rape of the Sabine Women

Citation: Giambologna. Rape of the Sabine Women. 1582. Web. 5 Dec 2017.

Description of Image: This sculpture appears to be made of marble. The main subject of the sculpture is the young woman who looks to be in distress. The sculptor brings out eyes up to her through the use of the two other figures who are looking up at her. The man on the very bottom is very muscular, even more so than the one above him. All thee subjects are expressing vivid emotion, though their facial expressions and the movements of their limbs. The woman is pushing away the young man holding her, appearing to cry out for help. The man crouching in the bottom also appears to be horrified by what he is seeing, using his left hand to cover his eyes and the rest of his body to push away. The young man in the middle stands tall and strong, holding the woman in his tight grip, despite her protest and appears oblivious to the man crouching at his feet.

Quote: “At a given signal, the Roman youths rushed in every direction to seize the unmarried women.” (Livy Book 1)

Similarities: Both the text and sculpture depict the same image: a woman being taken without her will. The woman in the sculpture looks surprised, her mouth agape, as the man ambushes her. She pushes against him to try to get away, but the Roman man persists; he needs a wife to have children to carry on the newly enriched Roman Empire.  Both the text and image show the kidnapping of neighboring women but the sculpture has one deviation. The man crouching at the bottom is not per-taking in the kidnapping of the maiden. In fact, he looks at the act in horror. The question of “why?” is raised here: he too, is a man so why isn’t he kidnapping a woman to be his wife as well?  My guess is that he is the woman’s father, imploring the Roman youth not to kidnap his daughter.

I think that thought the addition of the father figure, the artist depicted the rape of the Sabine women in a negative light. The artist wanted to show that this was a horrible crime and that the abducted women were violated. The artist follows the description in the text, although the text justifies and somewhat glorifies the kidnapping of the Sabine women. The artist’s sculpture is more emotional and shows the true horror of the kidnappings.

Elene T., Team Mars


Fasces, Fasces Everywhere!

DD079E57-07A7-40D9-9600-C76882DB55E1We learned about Fasces on our field trip. They are a symbol of authority usually found on ancient coins and even on present day works such as the Lincoln Memorial.

They were used by prominent figures such as Augustus to show political power. However, this past Sunday after watching a movie at BAM in Downtown Brooklyn I discovered fasces on lamp posts. Having passed these buildings often, I know their architecture is inspired by that of Ancient Rome. But what boggles me are the placement of this fasces. They are supposed to be political symbols, why are they outside a place known for the performing arts?

The question persists…

Carrissa, Team Hestia

Unit 4: Toward The Modern


24259530_911754582308959_1455839923_oThe photo displayed above was taken at a Mexican Restaurant in Manhattan, New York. I thought that this picture was relevant to unit four’s ‘Ecstasy of Saint Theresa’ and ‘Judith slaying Holofernes’ because of the empowering image women receive from the three art works. Saint Theresa, Judith and the woman above all have something in common, and that is a weapon and they all seem like strong women in general. The function of the three works are all symbolizing the power of women and how strong they can be, which makes them similar. What is different different about the photo and the works in Unit four is that Judith and Saint Theresa are both depicted slaying another character, but the photo taken above seems more about justice and is less brutal. Additionally, the form of the artwork for each piece is different, the ‘Ecstasy of Saint Theresa’ is a sculpture, ‘Judith Slaying Holofernes’ is an in depth painting with artistic techniques and the picture above seems like it was created with paint.

The photo above is also similar to the Greek Goddess Athena. Athena is the goddess of Wisdom and military victory. The woman shown above stands straight and proud with a a weapon in her right hand which does seem to show some sort of authority. She also reminds me of Aphrodite because of her beauty. Although her eyes aren’t showing, she seems beautiful.

Sunzida Mahbub, Team Athena.

Liss’s and Caravaggio’s works



The painting that I chose is “Nymph and Shepherd” by Johann Liss made in c. 1625. It is an oil in canvas. I found this in the Metropolitan museum. In this painting, we see that a passing shepherd with a crook in his hand has discovered a sleeping nymph who is at once intensely physical and a vision of ancient youth. This painting reminds me of Caravaggio’s, Calling of the St. Matthew, which represents Jesus pointing out at St. Matthew to be one of his apostles. If I compare both the pieces, I see various similarities and differences.

The similarities I see is the use of the colors. The colors that are most used are dark such as black, red and white in both the paintings. The paintings show the contrast between the light and the dark concept. We also see the chairoscuro lighting in both the paintings. In Liss’s painting, the light is coming form the unknown source (maybe a sunlight) is thrown upon the nymph. In Caravaggio’s painting, the light from the unknown source is thrown upon St. Mathew. The difference is that in Caravaggio’s painting we see a religious figure, Jesus whereas in Liss’s work, there is no religious figure. The Liss’s painting’s space is forest and Caravaggio’s painting space is the room. There is more movement in the Caravaggio’s painting because there are so many people and each of them are engaged in doing something. One is counting the money, other one is pointing at someone, etc. However, in Liss’s painting there are two characters from which one is sleeping and other is just looking at him.

I can connect this to something I studied in Classics class in the first unit. In the first unit, we learned about Aphrodite and her nymphs. In the Greek mythology, Greek goddesses were often illustrated with nymphs. I also found a quote from the Homeric Hymn of Aphrodite, “the Argos-killer (Hermes), abducted me, taking me from a festival of song and dance in honor off Artemis, the one with the golden arrows. There were many of us nymphs there, maidens worth many cattle as bride-price.” In this quote, Aphrodite talks about how she was kidnapped by the Hermes to make her dance in honor of Artemis. There were many nymphs there. This is how the nymph in the painting reminded me of the nymphs of Aphrodite.

Gurleen Kaur, Team Venus

Vaccaro’s Depiction of Christ


After looking for some examples of baroque paintings, I found an interested painting from Italian artist Andrea Vaccaro titled La Pietà. The painting displays an interesting piece of the chiaroscuro in the background and foreground. The way the lighting is situated on the body of Christ and the figure presumably to be the Virgin Mary is shown more prominently than the other figures presented in shadow. The painting reminds me of two similar works of art: Pietà by Michelangelo and The Entombment of Christ by Caravaggio; Pietà is a sculpture of the Virgin Mary cradling the body of Jesus, which is represented in paint form, hence the title in Vaccaro’s. The Entombment of Christ is a painting by Caravaggio that depicts Christ’s followers placing him in the tomb, which also shows the followers of Christ handling his deceased flesh. In Caravaggio’s work, the chiaroscuro is also presented with light primarily on Christ with shadow slightly more present in the background and the followers’ faces. This also reminds me of classics because of the connections between depictions of Christ and Caesar. In classics, we learned about the Ides of March and Caesar’s influence in art and writings after his assassination. In the time of Vaccaro’s painting, depictions of Christ are at the center of the Protestant/Counter-Protestant Reformation. In addition, Caesar’s influence in the Roman Empire relates to Christ’s influence in Europe in this exact distinction.

-A.C. Bowman, Team Saturn

Met Alexander the Great in Metropolitan Museum of Art

The new Baroque style of art had emerged close to the end of 16th Century in Western Europe. Baroque style painting use light and shadow, include realism and people has a dramatic movement. The following picture is called “Alexander the Great Rescued from the River Cydnus” painted by Pietro Testa at Rome by 1612-16. I saw it when I went to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, what catches my attention first was Alexander the Great because we had learned about him in our Clas1110 class. But after observing it carefully, I found some Baroque style characteristic on it. Compares to other Baroque painting like”Las Meninas” painted by Diego Velazquez, both painting has a contrast of light and shadow. In “Las Meninas”, the contour is dark and the light is focused on the center of the painting where the people are located. In “Alexander the Great Rescued from the River Cydnus”, Alexander is in the center of the painting and light is reflecting on him too. In Testas’ painting, we can see people are very emotional, acting dramatically try to save Alexander, and we don’t see these characteristics in Velazquez’s painting. Moreover, Self-portrait is a unique aspect of Baroque painting too. We see Velazquez himself at the left side in “Las Meninas”, however, we don’t see Testa in his painting because this is a campaign painting for Alexader the Great. We learned about him in our Clas1110 class, we know he was a great conqueror and the king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. He had united Greece and reestablished the Corinthian League, not only conquered Persian Empire and become their king but he also became the king of Babylon and Asia. This painting was painted during his war against Darius. The old man at the left side of the painting is the God of River and the right side are raised smoke from the fire set in Tarsus by Darius’s retreating troops. Overall, this is a very interesting painting, I see what I from both Art1010 and Clas1110 are interconnected on it.


Lincoln Memorial

The Lincoln Memorial is located in Washington D.C. It is a national monument to honor Abraham Lincoln. Visually, this work of art is similar to Saint Peter’s Piazza. The columns and friezes are very similar. The Lincoln Memorial does not share the imperfect shapes of the Piazza. Rather, the Lincoln Memorial follows the idealized geometry of the High Renaissance. The Piazza is distinct in its dynamic use of trapezoids and ovals. The Piazza’s columns are not vertically decorated like the Lincoln Memorial’s. The Memorial follows a Doric order. Instead of having open space to direct attention to the basilica, the Lincoln Memorial utilizes a huge fountain to focus on the main structure. The Piazza is much older than the Memorial. This is clearly seen through the rustic and aging colors of the Piazza. The Lincoln Memorial is much newer, therefore has a much brighter and modern color. While both utilize techniques from the Renaissance, they have distinct features which tell them apart.

Lincoln Memorial


St. Peter’s Square


-Ahmed, Team Mars


Global Heroes

Hussain, Basement 11pm

Hussain is from Puerto Rico and Egypt. He doesn’t know too much of his countries’ past/history but he does know of the story of President Mubarak. He learned of this story through family conversations and watching television broadcasts. President Mubarak began governing Egypt in 1981. His rule began to crumble as police brutality arose. Online protests began and soon after, marches, civil disobedience, and demonstrations caused the spark of the 2011 revolution. Hussain, while watching all of this occur from America, learned that anything is possible when people come together with a common goal.

Aline, Basement 11pm

Aline is from Mexico. She has learned of her country’s history through family and school. One significant story she has learned is about the Mexican War of Independence. Spanish conquests in Mexico ended with bloodshed and territorial expansion. Mexican independence movements began soon after and war broke out in 1810. Many Mexican commanders sacrificed their lives to help Mexico achieve independence. Aline learned from this story that nothing in life is handed to you. She learned that she must work hard to get what she wants.

Elliot, Basement 11pm

Elliot is from Latvia. He learned of his country’s history through his family. A great story he learned of his country is the rise of Kristaps Porzingis. Surrounded by crime, his mother worked all day to put food on Porzingis’ table. Skinny and constantly fatigued due to anemia issues, Porzinigs’ path to NBA fame was not easy. Porzingis would constantly be underestimated by his Spanish league coaches. “He’s too skinny to have an impact” was a sentiment he heard throughout his basketball life. How could a fatigued skinny 7-footer be able to affect a game of basketball? Porzingis answered this question quickly. He proved himself to be able to lead an NBA franchise, the New York Knicks, and have a global impact. He is now the star of New York and has transformed the perception of Latvia. From a crime-ridden country to a now prospering nation, Porzingis has truly transformed Latvia. Press reports and media stepped foot into his hometown, Liepaja. He showed how his country truly is and has even been discussed in NATO discussions. Porzingis has shown Elliot that no matter where you come from, you can make it big. Elliot learned to not limit himself and to reach for the stars, the same way Porzingis did.


During Ceasar’s rise, he allied with Crassus and Pompey. In the Lives of Illustrious Men Excerpts, Pompey’s death is described in great detail. “The head was cut from the lifeless body; such an action had been unknown before this time. The rest of the body, thrown into the Nile and burned on a funeral pile by Servius Codrus, was buried in a tomb with this inscription: Here lies Pompey the Great.” This relates to the death of many Mexicans during the Mexican War of Revolution. Mexicans were slaughtered by the masses at the hands of the Spanish. Similarly, Egyptians were killed at the hands of the police during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. These stories all have similar themes of unity. With a common goal, many people join forces to achieve something considered impossible.

-Ahmed, Team Mars


Saint Theresa & Augustus?!

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This image was shared with me in a group chat, in which the members visited the museum. Only one person took pictures, but all were blurry, so this image from the internet was shared instead.

The picture depicted next to Bernini’s “Ecstasy of Saint Theresa” is from the Parrish Art Museum in Southampton, New York, and is the “Statue of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus,” which is a replica of the “Augustus of Primaporta” Statue in Rome. This incredible piece is in some ways similar and different to the Baroque artist’s Counter Reformation piece. They both exhibit extremely alike traits in structure, while also displaying different characteristics to the other.

The two art pieces exhibit multiple similarities between each other. Firstly, they are extremely similar in their naturalistic appearances. The statue of Augustus is appropriately proportioned, like that of the bodies of the Angel and Saint Theresa, which highlights the realistic and humanistic traits of both figures, rather than standard, symmetrical figures (like the kouros). Additionally, both sculptures are made of marble. The use of marble is significant as both artists are able to depict what they want to portray through neat and skillful carvings. Furthermore, and importantly, they are both youthful. The angel in the Counter Reformation figure seems to be a child, while Saint Theresa seems to be a teen/young adult, since she is not filled with wrinkles or blemishes. Similarly, the statue of Augustus is muscular and young. Finally, they are not free-standing, and thus have support mechanisms.

In contrast, the two figures do produce different traits. Firstly, they have different meanings. The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa was made during the Catholics’ Counter Reformation period which served to reunite the Catholics with the Protestants, who seceded from Catholicism. As a result, it has a deeply religious meaning. The statue of Augustus has more of an authoritative, political and powerful atmosphere. Moreover, Bernini’s figure is really representative of the Baroque era with its dramatism and movement, especially evident in emotion in Saint Theresa’s action, whereas Augustus is in a contrapposto position, relaxed.

The statue of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus relates to Classics in a number of ways. We are currently learning about Augustus and his actions after Julius Caesar was killed. This figure portrays Augustus leading Rome into the peaceful period of Pax Romana, as taught in Classics. Additionally, it portrays the values of the Romans we were taught: virtus, which meant manliness and courage, is depicted in this sculpture through his youthful look, with a breastplate to symbolize military affiliation, and muscular arms and legs; and pietas, which meant religious behavior, which is depicted in the cupid at the base.


Daniel, Team Diana.

Artistry and Realism

The image I chose here is one that I saw in a museum which has some visual similarities to Unit 4. While there are certainly differences between this image and the ones featured in Unit 4, there are some noteworthy similarities to draw.

One art piece that this work reminds me of is the Art of Painting by Johannes Vermeer. Both pieces of work use a variety of colors to emphasize the difference between the people and the background. What also stands out is the usage of people’s expressions in both paintings. While the artistic choices certainly differ with the faces, there is still a very admirable amount of detail put into them. Also, the backgrounds of both works are key aspects of identifying their purposes as well tone they’re meant to emit. What also contributes to strong emphasis of tone in both of these works is the use of lighting. While the work by Vermeer is more expressive with lighting, this piece’s ambiance is heavily defined by how bright or dim the background is. For instance, the tone of the top right panel is somber as defined by the cloudy sky and the panel in the bottom middle is more celebratory or significant as represented by the brightness.  Vermeer’s work is similar as it has a serious and almost academic-esque atmosphere from the lighting and placement of objects. Overall, both pieces of art have strong similarities that stem from the tone usage, background and lighting.

Both pieces of work have several noticeable differences. One of which is that the naturalism depicted in Vermeer’s work is absent in this piece. The faces in this piece seem somewhat unnatural and more symbolic than anything else. Also, the usage of colors is very different. Both pieces use a variety of it but this piece of art is brighter than Vermeer’s darker and almost comforting one. Lastly, the work I found seems to have religious meanings or implications based on the ornaments being held in the bottom right and the flag in the top right as opposed to Vermeer’s which lacks most if any religious connections.

Also, this piece of art connects to Classics as it holds semblances to the various myths we’ve read for class. There seems to be a political or familial tie in with this painting which immediately reminds me of Oedipus the King and Antigone. Both of those literary works delved heavily into the relationship between politics and family which this piece I picked seems to draw similarities to as well. The flag in the top right as well the throne and baby in the bottom middle panel draw references to some sort of political and family development. The other pieces seem to give the air of nobility as well with the luxurious ornaments and refined scenery.

Bailey Seemangal, Team 5, Hephaestus


Crosses Everywhere

These are 4 of just the many stills that are placed in a garden near my Church in Glendale.  These photos are part of a set of paintings that depict the death of christ, including his burial, as seen in the last one.  When I saw this, this reminded me of the picture that we discussed called “The Elevation of Christ” by Peter Paul Rubens.

When looking at these paintings, one of the key focal points, obviously much like the Elevation is how Jesus is the focal point in both.  Both are also depicting the crucifixion of Christ.  Both are also very big on restoring Catholic religious faith.  Both are meant to help display the passing of christ in order to show how he died for our sins.  Both also serve as a biblical narrative and

There are many differences that I can see with this painting and the Elevation painting.  One such of course is the paint styling.  You can very much tell that the Elevation painting was done with a much more complex and artistic form of painting.  The Elevation painting is much more larger as well of course and also serves to tell a story through a single painting.  It is also much more detailed as it includes a sky, grass, and other small details to deliver the message.

I was able to connect this to Classics as we are currently learning about the Roman Empire and how they interacted with Catholics.  Being Catholic myself. this was an easy connection for me as I know that Romans and Catholics didn’t get along well, as we saw a little bit in Professor Yarrows class.  I feel this is important for people to learn about as it can better help people understand what Catholics went through during those times.

  • Scott Vincent, Team Cronos

Benin Arts on Pintrest?


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When I was on my phone, I had this app name Pinterest. I decided to to click on the phone and maybe go through pictures. While I was on the Pinterest, I was also thinking about art blog post for unit 4. I was scrolling down the pictures, I came across a picture that had the name Benin art. I clicked on it and this picture showed up. By looking at the name of the piece which was Benin relief plaque. I quickly knew this picture relates to the picture we saw in class which was Equestrian Oba and Attendants. This picture is relevant because the Equestrian Oba and Attendant is related to the Benin relief plaque. The function of the Benin relief plaque with four attendant is to show hierarchy skills and power. 

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There are some similarities and differences between the Equestrian Oba and Attendant and Benin relief plaque of four attendant. The similarities is that they both are depicting hierarchy skills (king).  Also, both are made of brass. Both of the piece have the king in the middle and facing front to show the power. The difference is that the horse on the Benin relief plaque is in lateral position, where the whole body of the horse is being shown. However, in Equestrian Oba and Attendants, the head of the horse shown. Also, there are five attendant in Equestrian Oba while Benin relief plaque only have four attendant. 

This relates to classics because in classics we learned about hierarchy skills and power. When we were learning about Alexander and other important figures, Alexander was seats on the horse. This basically shows the power that those figures have. 

-Mantaha Mannan, Team Vulcan




Julius and Teresa

This is a statue of Julius Caesar. Caesar was born on July 13th, 100BC and ruled the Roman empire from 46BC until his death in 44BC. During his reign, he declared himself emperor for life and had many affairs with many women.

This is a sculpture of the Ecstacy of Saint Teresa. This sculpture was made during the Protestant Reformation and served the purpose of re-defining the church. Saint Teresa is seen being held by an angel as the angel is holding a golden spear.


Both the statue of Julius Caesar and the Ecstacy of Saint Teresa share similarities. Both were made to idolize and honor a figure and a belief. Both images are not attached to the stone and show movement in their bodies.

Both the statue of Julius Caesar and the Ecstacy of Saint Teresa share differences. Julius Caesar is made of bronze whereas Saint Teresa is made of marble and fresco.  Julius Caesar is seen standing on the stone whereas Saint Teresa is seen floating over it. Julius was made to honor Roman politics whereas Saint Teresa was made to honor Roman religion.

The statue can be tied in to what we are learning in Classics. The statue portrays Julius Caesar as an elegant, royal, and powerful individual. This idea of Julius was discussed in our Classics class. The statue positions Caesar on a higher level than his viewers and is seen looking down at people rather than looking straight. Though this may have been unintentional, it definitely relates to the Julius Caesar discussed in Classics. In Classics, Julius was perceived as a dictator that often looked down on his people.


Frank, Team Artemis




Earlier in the year, in my Film 1101 class, I learned about “chiaroscuro” as a term used in cinema, meaning a shot characterized by low-key lighting and high contrast. This technique was often used in the 1930s and 1940s for noir movies. I recalled this knowledge after I watched Casablanca (1942) a few days ago. Casablanca is a film starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman about a man who must choose between helping a woman and her husband escape the Nazis, or pursuing her as a love interest.

The use of chiaroscuro in the shot above dramatizes and adds significance to the scene. Bogart’s character Rick is contemplating an important decision, and the lighting adds to the effect because Rick’s face is sharply lit while his surroundings are less so.

This example reminds me of the Calling of St. Mathew painting by Caravaggio that we studied in class because that painting also utilizes chiaroscuro to dramatize the scene. While it is not black-and-white, there is a sharp contrast between the focus on St. Mathew as opposed to everyone else in the scene. It is clear to me that the concept of chiaroscuro is important across many different artistic mediums.

Tying Baroque art to classics seems difficult, but I did notice some parallels between what we’ve been learning in both classes. Baroque art began in the midst of the Protestant Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. At its core, the Protestant Reformation was a reaction to the Catholic church having too much power. From these historical circumstances, different artistic styles emerged, often used as Religious propaganda in some ways – Caravaggio painted for many churches in Rome to as a part of the Counter-Reformation. In classics, we’re learning about the rise and fall of Julius Caesar. Caesar was rebelled against by his own senate essentially because he was gaining too much power. This is similar to how the Protestant Reformation gained traction as a response to the church’s power. Therefore, to a certain extent, we can tie elements of Baroque art and their context to other classical historical events.

Harry, Team Vesta

The Wolf Stands Alone

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     The sculpture above portrays who the Roman people once considered to be the founders of Rome , Romulus and his brother Remus.Romulus and Remus are curdled in the furs of a wolf due to the understanding that it is believed that the wolf acted as their mother and raised them , when they were abandoned as infants..This is proven because in the text it says “the boys had been exposed had been left by the retreating water on dry land, a thirsty she-wolf from the surrounding hills, attracted by the crying of the children, came to them, gave them her teats to suck and was so gentle towards them that the king’s flock-master found her licking the boys with her tongue”. This sculpture is an accurate portrayal of  what actually happened in history and the text The only difference is that the infants were discovered by the Tiber river and the sculpture doesn’t acknowledge the importance of the surrounding history about Romulus and Remus. The artist contributes raw history to the artwork and it can be shown that the origins of Rome is important for the artist to convey.

Correspondingly, this relates to what we are learning in art in that these ideas are portrayed in modern art.


This shirt portrays a modern more abstract almost surrealist view of Romulus and Remus. It is s considered surrealist due to the fact that it isn’t a solid picture, but an artist creative interpretation of it.We can tell due to the fact that the baby forms are created from a series of lines.Of course this is different compared to most surrealist art in that it isn’t a completely unique idea or portrayl.Additionally, this can also be compared to The Red Studio by Mattisse in that it uses but the use of lines and negative space to create a concept.

Samantha, Team Minerva


She-wolf nursing Romulus and Remus. 16th century. Musée du Louvre, inv. M.R. 1649.. Web. 28 Nov 2017.

Aphrodite, The Baroque and Paphos

Last week Monday, I paid a visit to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in order to do the Art history report. Even though business was business, I found myself drawn to many pieces outside of the art pieces we were required to find for the report. For example, this statue of Aphrodite, caught my eye, especially because of the way the sunlight illuminated it. Upon closer examination of the piece, I found that though it was a classical piece, made in the 2nd century, it still reflected ideals of the Baroque period. It may not seem like it, since the Baroque period was known for a more grotesque and innovative style/technique, but it indeed reflects one aspect of the Baroque style, namely, its realism. Idealized as it may be, the realism and naturalism of the statue, overlaid with sleek contrapposto, reflects a Baroque aesthetic for realistic and naturalistic human form and pose. Many Baroque sculptures similarly used naturalism and contrapposto in their work( mainly to evoke emotion and show extreme movement), such as the David by Bernini, reflecting a shared linage between this Aphrodite and the Baroque sculptural works.

The sculpture also brought to mind Classics. The first topic that we were lectured on in Classics was based around Aphrodite. During that class, we explored the different ways in which Aphrodite was worshipped or honored, which was mainly through Hymns- Homeric Hymns, in the scope of that class. Paphos was Aphrodite’s ancient place of preparation, according to the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite by Sappho. At Paphos, we learn that she was commonly worshipped through stones instead of statue. I think that knowledge of this creates an interesting contrast to the sculpture which I saw at the MET. Both are dedicated to the same goddess, yet both have vastly different personalities, in their imagery. Perhaps, though vastly different, each reflect the beauty which Aphrodite stood for, an all encompassing beauty, as we can observe both an ‘earthly’ and ‘unearthly’ beauty when viewing them.

* This image is of the Aphrodite stone of Paphos

Skaie Cooper, Team Ares/15

Dramatic pose


I found this painting when I was walking in the Metropolitan Museum. It caught my attention right away because of the harsh lighting and dark contrast. My mind went straight to the Baroque art style explained in class and unit 4. You can see where the light is coming from because the light source is directly on top their head. The bald man’s head is shown to be bright because of the light source. The drapery is also shown to be bright and heavy. This oil on canvas is called Saints Peter and Paul, drawn by  Jusepe de Ribera, a Spanish painter in 1612.  The drawing depicts the apostles and protectors of the city of Rome, and the Papacy disputing.  It can be related to Classics because in Classics, we learned about the Romans and how the place took place in the city of Rome. So this is a very important factor that connects Classics to Art.

This is a contemporary baroque art called Cockaignesque because of the light and dark contrast. The style is very Baroque because of the intense drama, deep color, play of light and shadow. This differ from the source material because this is a photography and Saint Peter and Paul is oil on canvas. So the medium is different but the function is the same. In the contemporary art, the woman appears to be more sexual than the old man in Saint Peter and Paul. Saint Peter and Paul shows two old, rustic man fighting about something. However, in the photography there is only one person sitting there with her hands folded together. There is a sense of intense drama because of the way she tilt her head and the dark atmosphere. Also, her hair contribute to the intense drama too.  The function of both these picture is similar because they depict drama.

-Jia Gao, Team Athena

Caesar and Spartacus

‘3 At any rate, some actually ventured to suggest permitting him to have intercourse with as many women as he pleased, because even at this time, though fifty years old, he still had numerous mistresses” Cassius Dio Book 44. 7-20

“4 And this is precisely what happened, though Caesar was encouraged by these very measures to believe that he should never be plotted against by the men who had voted him such honours, nor, through fear of them, by any one else; and consequently he even dispensed henceforth with a body-guard”Cassius Dio

In these two passages they first describe how arrogant Caesar was thinking that no on would attempt any assassination against him because he was too beloved by many and all his people. They also describe him as being perverted because of his lust for women having many mistresses. In the second passage it tells of how Caesar was more charismatic and his pride in Augustus his adopted son. I chose these quotes because usually when people talk about Caesar they do not go in depth to the actual caesar these passages allow you to see how others viewed Caesar. It allows you to see some of the other characteristics Caesar portrayed.

The image I chose is of a character named Julius Caesar From the series called Spartacus. In the show Julius caesar is not particularly the same as the actual Caesar. This Julius Caesar is almost another common soldier but eventually climbs the ranks after serving Marcus Crassus. He ends up finding himself as a big part in the rebellion Spartacus has started but would betray Spartacus as he revealed it was a ruse all along. I feel as though this character received his name because the writers of the show wanted to give a common soldier the name to see how viewers would view him whether he would be an important figure or another character. But eventually he proved to be more than just a common character.

Julius Caesar and Augustus are common figures we see in Art 1010. We have seen artworks sculpted after both figures and I have seen multiple statutes that have been made after them.


-Al-bishr Askar, Team Hephaestus

The Opheus

The picture I chose is a picture from MET museum. This was made in 1556-1619, the author is Cristoforo Stati. All the information was in the picture above. I believe this is an example of baroque sculpture not only because of the date, also because the emotion of the sculpture is kind of enjoying, and there are many details were presented in the sculpture. The modern thing that can compare with would be the lightbulb above, I believe lightbulb was invented far after the sculpture was made. Also, I think it is somehow related to classic because the sculpture was playing violent, and in the classic, I learned lyre was the oldest instrument in the western world. This is somehow connected since the sculpture has a corolla above his head, and it should represent god. But the fact is that the sculpture is using violent instead of the lyre. So I believe it can be somehow related to classic class materials.

The Tastiest Consul

  1. Cinaedus Romulus, will you see, and suffer, these things? YOU are shameless: a glutton and a gambler! Is this why, oh inimitable imperator,
  2. He no longer restrained his wrath but showed great irritation, as if these very officials were really stirring up sedition against him

The first passage characterizes Caesar as a person of poor character. Specifically, it states that he is shameless, a glutton and a gambler. These disgraceful characteristics indicative of a sinner and criminal, not a proud ruler. The next passage characterizes Caesar as a strong but angry man. This is shown by the key phrase “ no longer restrained his wrath”. This means that he generally able to restrain his wrath and anger. Despite this, he allows the situation to get the better of him. I chose these passages because they characterize Caesar very similarly, as a man of generally low moral character. The both passages show examples of sin, both gluttony and wrath.


The image is of myself holding a bottle of Ken’s Steakhouse Creamy Caesar Dressing. Ken’s Steakhouse Creamy Caesar Dressing is likely named after the famous Roman dictator because similarly to him Creamy Caesar Dressing has many powerful yet sinful qualities. My speculation does connect with what we read as many of the texts describe Julius Caesar as a strong rough man whose actions led to the beginning of an empire. Creamy Caesar Dressing is similar as it has a strong and powerful flavor, and transform any week republican salad into a strong and unstoppable empire.  

John J. -Team Diana

Augustus, The Great Emperor


“Caesar then went to fight Pompey’s sons in Spain; Augustus followed with a very small escort, along roads held by the enemy, after a shipwreck, too, and in a state of semi-convalescence from a serious illness. This energetic action delighted Caesar, who soon formed a high estimate of Augustus’s character.” (Suetonius, 8).

“When I administered my thirteenth consulate (2 B.C.E.), the senate and Equestrian order and Roman people all called me father of the country, and voted that the same be inscribed in the vestibule of my temple, in the Julian senate-house, and in the forum of Augustus under the chario which had been placed there for me by a decision of the senate.” (Res Gestae, 35).

These two quotations characterizes Augustus as a great emperor. The quotations expresses his militaristic and royal qualities. Even at the age of sixteen, he was pretty brave to follow Caesar to protect him. I chose these two quotations because they really give us the insight that Augustus was a great ruler. He had that quality since his childhood. He had that courage to protect the people of the country which is why he was very much respected by his countrymen. The passages are similar in the sense that they both depicts Augustus as brave and respected ruler of the country. The passages are different because the first one tells about him when he was too young, that is when he was sixteen years of age. The second quotation is when he got older, seventy-six years old. This was the other reason I chose these quotations because they portrays Augustus as a great person at his different ages of life.


The image that I chose is the month of the “August” in my calendar. The word, August can be described as an adjective which basically means respected and impressive. This word is derived from the Latin word, Augustus, named after the Augustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor. (Merriam Webster Dictionary). I can also connect this to the quotes that I chose above because Augustus really was respected and impressive person. His countrymen respected him. He won so many battles. He not only ruled over Rome, but doubled up the size of the empire by adding territories from Asia and Egypt. Thus, he is known as one of the great ruler of the Roman Empire.

I can also connect this to something that I learnt in my Art History class. In that class, we studied the sculpture of the Augustus of Primaporta. Augustus was the adopted son of Julius Caesar who also became the first emperor of Rome. He is always shown with the cupid on the dolphin and bare feet which is why he is also considered a God. His breastplate portrayed the battle between Romans and Parthians where Rome lost. But Augustus was successful in peacefully negotiating with the Parthians which is why he is also known as good master and diplomat. 

Gurleen Kaur, Team Venus 

Man I wish it was AUGUSTUS again….

“He argued that ‘Augustus‘ was both a more original and a more honourable title, since sanctuaries and all places consecrated by the augurs are known as ‘august‘ — the word being either an enlarged form of auctus, implying the ‘increase’ of dignity thus given such places, or a worn-down form of the phrase aviuw gestus gustus-ve, ‘the behaviour and appetite of birds’, which the augurs observed. Plancus supported his point by a quotation from Ennius’s Annals:

When glorious Rome had founded been, by augury august.’” (Suetonius)

9. The senate decreed that vows be undertaken for my health by the consuls and priests every fifth year. In fulfillment of these vows they often celebrated games for my life; several times the four highest colleges of priests, several times the consuls. Also both privately and as a city all the citizens unanimously and continuously prayed at all the shrines for my health.” (Augustus)

The first of the quotes manages to describe Augustus in that he wanted to express his name in almost a more poetic manner.  It appears that this quote is meant to help show us how serious he was when it came to everything, including titles, especially for himself.  The second quote talks about how Agustus sees himself in the eyes of the people.  It shows us how he notices his surroundings and how he feels about the peoples reaction to him.  The second quote tends to see it as very positive, as many people are saying that they will pray for his health.  I chose these 2 because they seemed the most interesting to me.  How Agustus got his name seemed like a really cool thing to explore and examine.  I figured that it was a cool thing to look for in order to also understand my photo below.  The second one seemed cool as it was still talking about him, yet from the perspective of other people.  Also to see how they feel about him seemed pretty cool and impressive.  But since they both talk about different things, there really isn’t much in common between the 2.  The 1st one like I said is more about Augustus himself, while the second one is more about his relationship with his people in some manners.

The photo above is a picture of me with the August poster for 2018.  I found this to be one of the easiest things to connect back to our readings with.  Perhaps since the name was so similar to what Augustus named himself after, Perhaps this month was given this name to honor him.  This most certainly connects with the first quote at the top of my post as it is that it can almost be seen that Augustus and August coexisted with each other during his time.  The second one, being as it talks about Augustus’ relationship with his people and also deals in with his health, has no connection whatsoever here with the picture that I have above.

I was also able to connect this to Art History as we have been studying Roman architecture recently, including things that have been seen and made during the time of both Augustus and Julius Caesar.  That can connect to here, as both men had large impacts on Roman lifestyle, and we could see more of that as we move on with the lessons.

  • Scott Vincent, Team Cronos

Modern Day Caesar/Baroque Caesar (overlap)


Cagnacci, Guido. David with the Head of Goliath. 1655. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

This painting I found in the Met visually corresponds to the 17th century baroque style art we learned about in unit four. In the painting David with the head of Goliath , Cagnacci uses chiaroscuro, a popular technique used by many other 17th century painters which incorporated an extreme contrast between light and shadow, often used for dramatic effect. The scene depicted is a dramatic one that has been reinterpreted by artists throughout centuries, and especially during the baroque era. David is depicted calm and confident and yet the scene is characteristically baroque with the severed head of Goliath in his hand. Since this painting is an actual baroque painting, there are hardly any differences in its style. However, it is arguably less grotesque than many baroque style paintings; there is no blood in the scene, and by use of chiaroscuro, the focus is less on the severed head and more on the pose and calm expression of David.

The celebrities and Caesars of the pre-modern era were the artists. Art and architecture were hugely emphasized all around the world before television and modern day medias existed. artists were recognized for their talents and admired even by the church, regardless of how “immoral” their actions were. In this sense the attitude towards them was strikingly similar to the attitude the Romans had towards Julius Caesar and their willingness to allow him to do this things the rest of the population wouldn’t be.

“The first of his new roles was in The Ides Of March , a new film project to be directed by the actor/producer/ writer/director George Clooney. Having already established his credentials as a director with Confessions Of A Dangerous Mind , Good Night, and Good Luck and Leatherheads , Clooney had his latest script set in the murky world of politics and was scheduled to begin shooting in February 2011..”

Johnstone, Nick. Ryan Gosling : Hollywood’s Finest, John Blake, 2013. ProQuest k Central,
Created from brooklyn-ebooks on 2017-11-27 11:31:36.

The book I chose is a biography on the rise to fame of actor Ryan Gosling. This paragraph speaks about how Gosling was starred in a movie directed by George Clooney titled “The Ides Of March.” it also mentions other works by Clooney.

The author uses the term “Ides Of March” in reference to the title of a movie that Gosling was cast in. since the phrase was used in the title of a movie it is logical to assume that the Clooney expects his audience to somewhat be familiar with its meaning/reference/origin.

a)”When they had begun to honour Julius Caesar…”

b)”At any rate, some actually ventured to suggest permitting him to have intercourse with as many women as he pleased, because even at this time, though fifty years old, he still had numerous mistresses.”

“Readings on the Imperators.” The Past in Present Tense, 6 Nov. 2017,

We don’t have any beloved emperors today, instead, we have celebrities. Similarly to the way Julius Caesar was honored, we “honor” and look up to modern day pop icons such as actors, musicians, etc. Because of his position, The Roman people approved of Caesar having intercourse with as many women as he pleased, something which would be unacceptable for any other person in their society. We hear of celebrities partaking in behavior and committing acts deemed unacceptable in our society, and we too give them a “free pass” because of their fame. Although he hasn’t publicly committed any act that disagrees with our societal rules and standards, Ryan Gosling is a great example of a pop icon. Attractive, talented, personable, he’s admired and honored by many. A modern day Julius Caesar.

Gabriella, Team Hestia


Julius “Caesar Salad”

Cassius Dio

“7 2 At any rate, some actually ventured to suggest permitting him to have intercourse with as many women as he pleased, because even at this time, though fifty years old, he still had numerous mistresses.”


Life of Augustus

“8 Having recovered possession of Spain, Caesar planned a war against the Dacians and Parthians, and sent Augustus ahead to Apollonia, in Illyria, where he spent his spare time studying Greek literature.”

The first quote portrays Julius Caesar as a man of multiple women who was, to certain extent, honored by his people. Though the majority didn’t perceive him as a leader, but rather a weak link to their kingdom that they wanted to perish, he didn’t inflict harm on those who went against him. Perhaps his personality led to his assassination. Second quote expands on Caesar’s military determination. He is also shown to be a man of knowledge as he ‘plans’ wars and spends his spare time learning.


This image is me holding a Caesar salad that was made only to be advertised. I remember my first time in an unfamiliar restaurant years ago. I was given a menu in an Italian language, I didn’t understand anything but a word that looked familiar – ‘Caesar’. I quickly made a reference to Julius Caesar. Since then, I believed that the name Caesar Salad was influenced by Julius Caesar. Though my theory can be a myth or a fact, it is pretty interesting. Rumors arose that Caesar Cardini, born in Italy, was the man behind the tasty Caesar salad. Unfortunately, the rumors claim Julius Caesar was not an influence to Cardini to create the Caesar salad. On the other hand, rumor has it that Caesar salad was invented in about 1903 by Giacomo Junia who is an Italian chef in Chicago. Giacomo Junia named his invention after Julias Caesar, ‘the greatest Italian of all time’. Regardless of all these rumors, I believe that Caesar salad was greatly influenced by Julius Caesar and is an easy make and good taste – only if you stab it 23 times!


To connect this with art class, statue of Julius Caesar is shown in contrapposto wearing military uniform depicting his power over the army. In his statue we see a more naturalistic look, ideal proportions, and lack of emotions.

-Amir, Team Juno

It and Augustus

For this blog post, we are supposed to write about an object or person that has a name that derives from Julius Caesar or Augustus, two of the most well-known Roman emperors in history. The object I chose that has a name that derives from these two emperors is the book It by Stephen King. Even though on the surface this novel doesn’t seem connected to these two famous emperors, it actually does. If you are familiar with the novel, the 1990s mini-series, or the movie that came out this year, you know that half of the book takes place in the summer of 1958 and two months in the summer are July and August. July is named after Julius Caesar and August is named after Augustus. Even though Stephen King didn’t choose these months because of the origins of their names, it is still interesting to look at why these months have these names. While both are important, I’m mainly going to focus on August and Augustus in this post.

Augustus was the adopted great-nephew of Julius Caesar and was emperor of Rome after Caesar’s death. I thought the month of August was named after Augustus because it was the month he was born, but this speculation actually isn’t true. According to Suetonius’ “Life of Augustus,” he states, “that the name ‘August’ should be transferred to September, because Augustus had been born in September but had died in the month now called August; and that the period between his birth and death should be officially entered in the Calendar as ‘the Augustan Age.” This is quote shows that August is actually named after Augustus’ death and not his birth. This also clears up this common misconception that many people have about the origins of the name “August.”

Augustus was a very popular ruler. In the same writing, Suetonius states, “Such was his reputation for courage and clemency that the very Indians and Scythians — nations of whom we then knew by hearsay alone — voluntarily sent ambassadors to Rome, pleading for his friendship and that of his people.” This shows how Augustus was seen as this powerful, courageous, merciful leader that was a desired ally. I chose this quote because it shows how other countries saw Augustus and how they all wanted to be his ally. He was seen as someone who would protect all the people he ruled over and who were on his side. As well as being courageous and merciful, he was also well accomplished. In Res Gestae, Augustus himself says, “Twice I triumphed with an ovation, and three times I enjoyeda curule triumph and twenty-one times I was named emperor.” This shows just some of the things that Augustus accomplished his long reign as emperor and it shows how accomplished Augustus was. I chose this quote because it shows how accomplished Augustus is and how Augustus views himself. These two quotes show how Augustus was seen as this powerful figure who accomplished many triumphs. Both passages list Augustus’ political and military victories.

This postive view of Augustus can be seen in artwork such as “The Augustus of Primaporta” made in 20 BC. This was meant to be a propaganda piece that showed Augustus as a powerful decendant of the gods that had a vast amount of political triumphs. His power is show by his powerful stance. Also, his divine herititage is symbolized by the cupid and the dolphin, which are symbols of Aphrodite, and his bare feet, which was used in art work to show god-like status. Furthermore, Augustus’ breast plate depicts many of his political victories, such as the returning of military standards to Rome from the Parthians. This sculpture, the passages, and the name, “August,” shows how Augustus was seen as this powerful, god-like figure and how he has a lasting legacy.


Augustus of Primaporta picture link

-Emily Ryan, Team Mars

First Sextilis, then August

Processed with VSCO with c1 preset

Quotes characterized Augustus:

1) “Augustus announced his candidature for a tribuneship of the people– death had created a vacancy- although neither a patrician nor a senator, and thus doubly disqualified from standing” (Suetonius, 10).
2) “In my nineteenth year, on my own initiative and at my own expense, I raised an army with which I set free the state, which was oppressed by the domination of a faction” (Res Gestae, 1).

These two quotes show that Augustus was a man who fought for himself and people. In the first quotation, we can read that he tried to be a candidate for tribuneship, even though he never had anything to do with that, which disqualified him automatically. Another quote is a part of the piece that Augustus wrote about himself. It shows that as a young man he already was able to be there for people, and help them out.
I chose those two quotations because I wanted to describe Emperor Augustus as a brave young man who was not afraid to take actions and help.
Two passages are similar because both of them emphasizes Augustus’ courage. The first one is from Suetonius. The author describes the ruler willingness to take a risk. The second quote is Augustus’ own words. He describes how he raised an army on his own.

I took a selfie with the month of August from my new planner for 2018. August it the eight month of the year in the Gregorian calendar and it’s named after Emperor Augustus. At first it was named Sextilis (in Latin), but later on, Julius Caesar changed it in honor of Augustus Caesar in 8 BCE.

I think that there is the connection between Augustus that we read about in class and my picture. The month August was named in honor of Emperor Augustus, which means that he was an important person who deserved it. In our readings, we can read about Augustus as a young man who was able to help people, take the risk and show his courage. This post is also connected to our art history class because we spoke about Augustus’ sculpture and described him very specifically as a young brave man.

Edyta, Team Aphrodite







Welcome to Manhattan



In the photo above is my friend Julia (on the left) and I at the foot of the Manhattan bridge. We’re sitting at a small steps at the bottom of the arch. We’re on the Manhattan side of the the bridge, and this photo shows an architectural piece that divides the incoming and outgoing traffic of the bridge. Similar to St. Peter’s square, the archway shares unique characteristics. In the photo, the sides of the arch has colonnades that extends outwards. The colonnades only contain two closely lined columns used as decoration, rather than the church’s incentive to direct traffic of pilgrims and carriages. The column’s simplistic and smooth unfluted shaft also follows the tuscan order that can be identified around St. Peter’s square. The colonnades that line either sides of the triumphal arch creates a wide semicircle shape. The shape can be compared to St. Peter’s square where people describe it to be the open arms of the church. In this case, the archway can be the welcoming arms for people coming into Manhattan. However, the entrance of the archway does not create the same sense of movement as to the piazza. St. Peter’s basilica’s columns display Baroque qualities of invoking movement in the way that the columns are unevenly spaced and are not freestanding. The colonnades of the archway are tightly lined, and are elevated so people are unable to interact with the architectural piece. Unless the steps are climbed, people are only able to approach the columns; Whereas, the columns of the piazza are much larger in scale and are spaced out for people to walk through. Another characteristic that both places share are the tops of the colonnades. It seems like fence-like structures that resemble crenellations of castles.

I met Julia (left of photo) in high school, and I found out that her grandmother chose her name. When her grandmother was pregnant with her father, her grandmother chose the name “Julia” if the baby was a girl. Instead, her grandmother named her father “Julio” when she found out he was a boy. Before hearing this story about Julia’s name, I thought that Julia was a common name in Hispanic culture. This story does support my speculations somewhat, and is related to what we have learned in class. The similarities of family names are passed down to different generations. I can relate this influential factor of naming choices to modern day culture, because I noticed that a lot of siblings share the same first letter of their names. For example, my cousins are named Ada, Anna, and Andy. I think that many parents find it easier to remember names if they match the first letters. Though the names “Julia” and “Julius” were separated according to gender, there was a similarity between the way a family names their relatives.

In relation to Julius Caesar, he has been described in Catullus’ poem where the poet questions “what is this but perverse generosity? Has he not achieved enough gluttony?” Catallus’ syntax interestingly juxtaposes the connotations of someone that is perverse and generous. Someone that is generous is seen as selfless and willing, whereas, perverse describes someone that is corrupted and improper. Thus, Catullus implies that Caesar’s actions may seem like they’re positively improving the community, however, his intentions may be corrupt and out of self interest. Cassius Dio also explores the same idea that Julius Caesar is not a respectable public figure by stating that “most men suspected him of being inflated with pride and hated him for his haughtiness” in his book. The quote creates the image that the public may interpret Caesar’s ego as a negative influence on his popularity and favorability towards his followers. I chose these quotes because both writers elaborate on a common theme that runs through history and culture. Leaders become examples of how their high self-esteem leads to their downfall, or hubris. This idea can be identified in how Julius Caesar was killed by his closest peers. In addition, current events display how celebrities, politicians, and fictional characters in movies are exploited by their own flaws.

Vicky, Team Hermes

Caesar + Baroque art = ???


In chapter four, we learned about Baroque art. Its a type of art that focuses on movement. Its a style that uses exaggerated motions and clear details to make it easier for the audience to understand. It is super easy and fast to interpret the details in the painting or the main focus like drama, histortical event, political, dance and much more. It began in the 1600. The painting that I’m using today is of the death of Julius Caesar (1798) by Vincenzo Camuccini. It perfectly shows the death moment of Caesar. It shows the Baroque style drama, emotions and exaggerated characters in the painting. It shows lots of movement happening between the conspirators and Julius Caesar trying to escape and safe himself. He is gathered by so many people and the tension and different expressions/emotions are portrayed beautifully. The artist made it super clear for the audience to understand everything that’s  going on inside the painting. We discussed him in Classics as well. The painting shows the drama and realism of the time when Caesar died. As we know and learned in Classics, In 44 BC, he was stabbed to death at a meeting of the Senate. As many as 60 conspirators, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus, and Marcus Junius Brutusled were involved. He died in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March, which is best known for Julius Caesar’s death. We did different readings of him and learned how he had both negative and positive sides to him. Although he did great things and was good leader, he was still selfish and wanted things his own ways. One event led to another and he was killed being the example showing that there is no such thing as perfect leader. Fizza saeed, Team Hermes


Hail Julia!

20171121_170704“When they began to honor Julius Caesar (now dictator), it was with the idea, of course, that he would be reasonable…”
(Cassius Dio book 44.4-20 chapter seven line two)
“whether he will go across the great Alps, seeing the great monument of Caesar, the Gallic Rhine or those monstrous men, the furthest Britons.”
(Catullus, chapter eleven line thirteen)

These quotes characterize Julius Caesar in a negative way. I chose them because of the way they similarly characterize Caesar as a monstrous dictator who is getting power and glory despite not deserving said power and let alone deserving to rule the empire as a dictator. The passages that I took the quotes from are most likely used to justify or excuse the Roman Sennett’s action of assassinating Caesar.

Cassius Dio and Catullus used their work as propaganda against Caesar as well as a justification for his assassination. This is different than the propaganda Augustus’s wife made for him after his death, the statue Augustus Of Prima Porta that we learned about in art1010. The propaganda that Augustus Of Prima Porta was portraying was positive and was praising him for his military and diplomatic victories.
The image I have chosen for this blog is a picture of the name Julia written in rainbow lights, like those on a billboard sign. In the family of Gaius Julius Caesar, all women were named Julia. Someone may have the name Julia because every woman in a family were given the family name as their first name.
This does not connect to the quotes because based on the quotes no one would want to name their child after a man like Julius Caesar. More likely, each generation named a child Julia or Julius to honor a relative from the past or just because the parents liked that particular name. It is my opinion that in this way the name Julia has survived from Ancient Rome to the present day and not as a way to continue to honor Julius Caesar.

Hinda Honikman, Team Mars

I met Aphrodite! OMG


Yesterday I went to the Metropolitan Museum of Art to do my paper for Art class. I was so excited and shocked to see all the paintings and statues that we have discussed in class. It almost felt unreal. As I was walking by this statue, I realized it was Aphrodite!!!! We have learned about her in both art and classics. she is a beautiful goddess known for her incredible beauty. And we also have heard her stories in classics. Meeting her was like a dream. She stands alone in the hallways with her own spark and value. I could see people stopping by her and viewing this beautiful body. It looked extremely gorgeous even though its not in well condition anymore. Somethings are just priceless and seem unreal. Fizza saeed, Team Hermes


“Augustus” named on the planner

Suetonius: Life of Augustus:

“Next to the Immortals, Augustus most honoured the memory of those citizens who had raised the Roman people from small beginnings to their present glory; which was why he restored many public buildings erected by men of this calibre, complete with their original dedicatory inscriptions, and raised statues to them, wearing triumphal dress, in the twin colonnades of his Forum.”

Res Gestae:

“As for foreign nations, those which I was able to safely forgive, I preferred to preserve than to destroy. About five hundred thousand Roman citizens were sworn to me. I led something more than three hundred thousand of them into colonies and I returned them to their cities, after their stipend had been earned, and I assigned all of them fields or gave them money for their military service.

In the first passage, Augustus appears as a character who is an excellent administrator. He carried out an enormous work of reorganizing the entire Roman Empire. Furthermore, through stringent rules with strict discipline Augustus was able to bring a lasting Roman peace that improved communication and prosperous trade. Rejuvenation of old practices adequately integrated Judaism and Christianity through transmission of Classical heritage from Romans and Greeks.

Contrastingly, in the other passage of Res Gsestae, Augustus is depicted as a merciful emperor who forgave those that surrendered and gave themselves to the Roman Empire.

These two passages characterize Augustus more than Julius Caesar. This describes more as Augustus because while I reading the text, it talks more about Augustus and what Augustus has done. It also shows the kind of person Augustus was. The first quote talks about Augustus most honored memory and how those people are respected by the Roman people. The statue that was created to make those people wear winning dress.The second quotes talk about talks about how Augustus was kind enough to forgive the one who gave up and gave themselves to the Roman Empire.

I choose those two passages because since it has many details on Augustus and talks a lot about what Augustus did and how he is so important. Also shows how he is characterized as a person.

The two passages I choose have some similarities and differences.The similarities between the two passages are that they both talk about Augustus. Both of the passages talk about him being honored and what he has done. The differences are that the first passages talk about how Roman people respect the dead people and honored them with the statue that has the wining dress. The second passage talks about how Augustus forgave people that gave up but were able to give themselves Roman Empire. It also talks about how Augustus recognize as an excellent administrator and he has much excellent recognition throughout the Roman Empire.


When I was going through my Brooklyn College planner, I came across to this page for the month of Augustus. As soon I saw that I automatically knew how Augustus connects with the month of August. The calendar derived the name of Augustus because since the name of the month August is named after Augustus.

The comparison to speculation to the quotes above, I will say it somewhat connects because is the month of the August was named after Augustus which already shows that Augustus is powerful and people showed him respect to him. And shows his importance to what he has done.

In Art History class, we also discussed about Augustus. This image was studied in Art History class.


This topic connects with art because since we studied this sculpture of Augustus Caesar in art. In art, we learned about every detailed of the image and what pose Augustus Caesar is making or what his intentions and what he is trying to say. This portrait was found in Italy and named Augustus of Prima Porta. In this picture, Augustus is the military dress, wearing highly decorated breastplate or cuirass and the drape is around his hip. His right hand is raised up and pointing up to show that his power and addressing to his troops. He is also depicted barefoot which show that he is the god. This sculpture also shows political propaganda and to show the importance of him.

-Mantaha Mannan, Team Vulcan


“History – Augustus.” BBC, BBC,

East Meets West


This is a screenshot of an Indian Wedding dress  I found on Pinterest. It reminded me of the East and West fusion of art we discussed in this chapter.

The wedding dress is of traditional silhouette and the beading and the work on the dress are also very traditional. However, the color is western influenced. Traditionally the color of the dress should be red. However, the white color comes from the western wedding gowns. This is similar to how we saw Hakusai’s Fighting with the Wind inspiring the Second Avenue subway art  Blue Print for a Landscape. In both the painting and this dress we see how the art and style of one country influence the art and style of other countries. There are also differences. First of all the medium of the influence was different, one was painting from a subway art, the other is marrying of style. Also, the subway art is rather a unique interpretation of Hakusai’s painting whereas the dress, rather than interpreting combines the meaning of the white color to that of the meaning of a traditional dress.

This is also connected to Classics topics because we often discuss how Greece influenced Rome, as well as how other cultures influenced them and how they were seen. Many Roman Gods were inspired and borrowed from Greece god such as Aphrodite was integrated into the Roman culture as Venus. In both classes, we see how in contemporary society, we still borrow and are influenced by other cultures as were the cultures from antiquity.


Masuma, Team 18

Baroque Style in the Death of Julius Caesar?!


The image above is the painting of The Death of Julius Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini.

In Classics class, we learned about the death, or rather, the assassination, of Julius Caesar. The image above that I had searched up for while reading an article on the death of Julius Caesar depicts the moment he was being stabbed by the Roman senators.

In art, we have been learning about Baroque art. Baroque art, although it was mostly in religious paintings, also carries the style of dramatic scenes, rich and deep color, as well as a great contrast between light and dark. It also contains great degrees of movement and emotions. The image above was painted in 1798, a couple of decades after the Baroque movement. But this painting shows elements of Baroque style. If you look closely, you can see the movement of the figures. On the right there are figure shown to have their hands raised whereas the ones on the left are engrossed in the assassination of Caesar. There is also a contrast between the light and dark as shown in the background and foreground.


This is a drawing that Camuccini had drawn of the assassination of Julius Caesar. I had gone to the Metropolitan Museum but was unable to take a picture. But this drawing/sketch is included in the museum.

Aisha, Team Ares

Unit 3: Plato and the Linear

While going through my notes for Classics, I was reading the readings from Plato, and remembered the Death of Socrates painting from a previous Art class. I looked it up and thought if it used linear perspective or not, so I went into some research. I found this painting that clearly uses linear perspective, and involves Plato as well as Aristotle discussed in Classics. The painting uses a vanishing point as well as a horizon line to create depth inside the painting. Plato and Aristotle are at the center, (vanishing point), so the rest of the characters surround the main focus of the piece. Pieces like this can inspire modern contemporary artists to understand the concept of bringing a three dimensional element to their art. The mediums of the past were very limited to a few materials, yet in present times, paintings like this could have much more meaning, and depth than a depiction of Plato and the philosophers.

Sean Reilly, Artemis

The Month of “Augustus”

Augustus of Primaporta, 1st century C.E., marble (Vatican Museums)

Throughout the readings, we learn a lot about who he is and his characteristics.

“He argued that ‘Augustus‘ was both a more original and a more honorable title, since sanctuaries and all places consecrated by the augurs are known as ‘august‘” (Life of Augustus 7).

“I drove the men who slaughtered my father into exile with a legal order, punishing their crime, and afterwards, when they waged war on the state, I conquered them in two battles” (RES GESTAE 2)

These two quotes displays how people honored Augustus and Augustus’s actions. People feel that his name is empowering and respected while he gets revenge to the people who slaughtered his father. I chose these quotes because they both display to the reader they type of person Augustus is. One is what others characterized him as while the other is what the reader takes away about his actions. Both quotes are similar in that they both use specific wording to fully characterize Augustus. In the first quote, the terms original and honorable are being used to characterize Augustus while in the second quote it uses the terms punish and conquer.


This is a picture of me holding a calendar opened up to the month of August. The month of August is named after Augustus. Augustus completed the calendar and named the month after himself. This relates to the reading in a way because Augustus is known for conquering therefore him naming a month after himself shows power and honor as discussed  in the previous quotes.

Extra Credit:

This picture relates to the class because we are currently learning about Augustus and Julius Caesar. The month on July is named after Julius and the month of August is named after Augustus. This is me holding a calendar opened up to the month of August. Augustus named this month after himself which shows that he is very powerful and respected by many.

Adam Allan, Team Ares


This photo depicts the USPS branch building in 450 Lexington in midtown. Like the buildings our trip around Lower Manhattan this building was another structure symbolically attributed to ancient Roman and Greek architecture. The most past of this structure is the decorative columns on the exterior of the building, which order to give it a official and authoritative presence. The fake columns however were not completely visually accurate because while the capitals are of the Doric order the base is of a Ionic or Corinthian style. Like many government buildings that we saw while on the trip this is just another example of people copying a well know architectural style that would improve the status of their building.

-Bedirhan Gonul, Team Aphrodite

Fearsome Foes vs. the Little Guy


  Fearless Girl is a bronze sculpture by Kristen Visbal added to face off against the Wall Street Charging Bull. This sculpture is reminiscent of Donatello’s David. The meaning of these two pieces is similar, a smaller person going up against a seemingly invincible foe. Like Antigone from the drama of Sophocles’ Antigone, these depict someone who is willing to die for what they believe in; the odds seem heavily stacked against them. Both works feature a brave and proud subject, strong in heart even if they don’t appear to be.  They are also both sculpted from the same medium, bronze, with a hand on their hip.

While the David is a religious figure telling a story from the Bible of why faith in God is imperative, the Fearless Girl represents female empowerment and gender diversity in the workplace. Donatello uses a contrapposto pose in his sculpture; the young girl is standing almost perfectly symmetrical. Finally, the works show a different moment in the confrontations. David has just defeated Goliath, standing victorious with his head under his foot and sword in hand. The Fearless Girl is forever facing down her opponent; you can see the wind move her dress as the bull charges and the concentration on her face as she bravely holds her ground. Even with the differences of the pieces, they both demonstrate the truth that you can achieve anything you set your mind to no matter how small you may be.

Linear Perspective of a Courtyard

CAM00688 (1).jpg

View of the courtyard on Ave J


The sculpture, which is the center point

This is a courtyard on the intersection of Avenue J and Ocean Avenue. It caught my eye as I was passing by it on my way to school. In this photo, we can see how the architects of the building employed linear perspective, a technique commonly used in Renaissance art, to draw eye to the fountain in the middle of the courtyard. The walls of the interval to the courtyard are similar to a hallway; your eyes naturally follow the passage to see what is at the end of it. the fountain itself has three “rings” to catch the water and deposit it to the bottom to be re-pumped. This architecture is common for fountains and probably wasn’t intended for the purpose of linear perspective, but upon traveling down the corridor, your eyes naturally land on the bottom-most “ring” and travel upward to the sculpture. It is interesting to also note that the center point of the linear perspective used here is a sculpture, because during the Renaissance, linear perspective was used mostly in paintings. This is another example of how modern-day artists have taken elements from past art and incorporated it in today’s art. Whereas in a painting you would have to paint the linear perspective, architects have figured out a way to use external objects to create linear perspective. Because of this, it is really easy to imagine the picture on the left as a painting which depicts a three-dimensional image on a two-dimensional surface. The statue itself is also intriguing. As there was so plaque to allude to the creature’s identity and the sculpture isn’t detailed at all, I couldn’t identify who it was. He is a child, holding what seems to be a fish over his shoulder, similar to the sculpture of a child wrangling the goose which was shown in class for Unit 3. I wondered if this sculpture depicted cupid but the boy has no wings. Then I thought maybe he was Poseidon, since he was a water god and this sculpture is on top of a fountain; however to my knowledge, Poseidon was never depicted as a child. Maybe this sculpture depicts just a boy, but I’ll have to ask Professor Yarrow to be sure.


Elene T., Team Mars

No Testicles Present

This bronze statue holds true to the ideal of true Ancient Greek sculptures….or almost; his privates aren’t showing. I took this picture in the Anthropologie store on our trip to Manhattan. I thought it was really funny that I got to see Hermes with my group, Hermes. But then I saw thunderbolts on his headpiece instead of wings which made me doubt myself. Now I am not sure if this is Hermes, but feel free to reassure me in the comments if you know who this is! I wish I could credit the artist becasue this looks as if it took quite a bit of time but I do not recall seeing any writing around that credits the artist. This statue shows the “ideal male figure” that the Ancient Greeks idealized in countless works of their beautiful ancient art. The statue is portrayed as young and athletic/fit, however I have a feeling that he isn’t as nude as the Ancient Greeks would want him to be, although I’m sure this satisfies the Church. Even though his body has so much movement and feeling in it, his face reminds me of the archaic smile. The eyes are dead and lifeless, which I feel is a waste to have done so much on the body only to draw all of the life, emotion, and feelings out of his face.


Christie, Team Hermes. IMG_0181


Image result for This marble sarcophagus (Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Lives of Saint Peter and Christ)

This is a Sarcophagus with scenes from the Lives of Saint Peter and Christ located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art going back to the early 4th century of the Roman Culture.I found this interesting because  it relates to the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus.

This carving shows scenes from the life of Christ. This was carved about the same time Christianity was spreading in the Roman Empire, similar to the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. There are two scenes of Saint Peter’s arrest in Rome and the miracle of drawing water from a rock performed in his jail cell. On the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, there are some scenes from the Bible. Christ is looking naturalistic and showing movement. Also, Christ is in the middle and looks very young with a scroll in his hand.

This relates to Classics class where we discussed about syncretism, the merging of two different cultures, which is depicted here with the sarcophagus connecting Christianity and the old Roman polytheistic traditions.

Both are similar in that they were carved around the time when Christianity was first recognized as a legal faith in the Roman Empire but, the Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus is different as it connects classical and early christian art. With the capitals and columns, and Christ being situated above the river gods, the sarcophagus shows Christianity conquering old polytheistic traditions of the Ancient Romans which organizes and creates the new religion into its empire.

Adam Allan- Team Ares


Statues and the Masaccio

When walking home from the train station, I came across these statues in my neighborhood that were near my Church that I did Blog post 1 on.  There were 2 in particular that caught my attention.  The first one on the right is one of Jesus on top of the entrance to the Saint Pancras School with his hands up.  The second one is down that block across from my Church, of Saint Mary in a garden.  At first, it may be hard to see exactly how I am able to connect these 2 statues to what we have learned to Unit 3 in class.  When looking at the Jesus statue atop the entrance, I actually found what I consider is some similarities between it and the Masaccio.  When looking at the Jesus Statue, and also comparing it to the Masaccio, it can be seen that Jesus is the forefront of both.  The Masaccio and this building have Jesus to be the main standout and center of their respective pieces.  When looking also at the building where the Masaccio is found, it can be seen that the back or where the altar is has a very similar shape to that of which is the door entrance below the statue here.  I also took a photo of the Mary statue because it felt very similar to the statues of David that we discussed in class.  I found them to be similar because they had both similar movements showing very encouraging stances, while also having a strong representation power to them.

There are a few differences to be noted as well that both of these have.  The Masaccio of course is a picture unlike the statue that I have here.  You also have it representing the death of Jesus while also having the Holy Trinity represented.  I feel that also a big difference that can be seen is in how the statue I have photographed here is meant to be a more welcoming presence from Jesus as the students enter the school, hence why is hands are positioned the way they are, while the Masaccio was more to represent Humanism and the Renaissance.  The big main difference between the Mary Statue and that of David is that of which they represent.  The David statue represents victory, specifically that of David’s killing of Goliath.  Mary’s statue is most likely a representation of all the good Mary has over the earth, hence why she is in a garden.

A big connection I can make to what we are learning in Classics is how we learned about the Roman republic in Classics.  I come from a Roman Catholic Church religion.  The Romans were very big in the creation and spread of this religion.  We know that the Romans were in fact very big on religion and had a large influence over its teachings.  If it weren’t for some of the people and events in Rome, it is possible these statues and others might not have existed today.

#artandclassics #1010unit3

  • Scott Vincent, Team Cronos

Luck of the Irish

One of the most famous churches in New York City is St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Manhattan. This building was built in 1858 and was opened in 1879. This building is built in the Gothic Revival style and was designed by the architect, James Renwick Jr. It has many Gothic features such as pointed arches, flying buttresses, stone, radial windows, cluster columns, and an expansive use of glass. Height and light are main features of Gothic architectures because they represent closeness to Heaven and God’s divinity. Flying buttresses are used to support the walls of the church. This was seen as anti-classical because the walls don’t hold themselves up. In Classical architecture, the walls were able to hold themselves up. One of the biggest differences between St. Patrick’s Cathedral and its historical counterparts is that St. Patrick’s uses an extensive amount of spires. Spires are the points that decorate the building and are commonly seen on church towers. Older buildings, such as Chartres Cathedral and St. Sernin’s Cathedral, do use spires, but not to the extent that St. Patrick’s Cathedral does. Gothic style emerged after the Goths, warriors from North-Western Europe, conquered Rome. Rome was an empire at the time, expanding as far wast as Spain, as far north as present day France, all the way down to Egypt, and all the way to the Caspian Sea. Rome became the most powerful state in the Mediterranean by 146 BCE. The empire’s influence was so powerful that by the time Augustus was emperor, all the other independent states were virtually gone. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the anti-classical Gothic style emerged and emulated the classical architectural styles or Greece and Rome, such as domes and columns. The influence of both Gothic and Classical architecture can be seen in many building through New York and all over the world.

Sources: St. Patrick’s History and Heritage

Architectural Digest Article about St. Patrick’s Renovation

Emily Ryan, Team Mars (16)

Domes, from Rome, to Florence, to New York

If you ever have come off at Borough Hall on the 3 or 4 trains like myself, you may have noticed this building, aptly named Borough Hall. The hall, like many forms of architecture in New York, draws a lot of inspiration from the architecture of the old. It clearly was influenced by the Greek and Roman forms, through the inclusion of Corinthian columns, Ionic columns and pediments. However, when looking at it, I could also see its similarity to the Dome of Brunelleschi, which also featured a ribbed dome. The dome of Brunelleschi was something that was designed to carry the weight of a much larger structure, though the Hall still uses the ribbed form, in order to pay homage of sorts to the architectural endeavors of the old. The dome had been built for the sake of Florence, but was also built because of a deep admiration of a previous generation, similar to how the Borough Hall’s dome was built with the Dome of Brunelleschi’s design in mind. The dome of Brunelleschi was built, having been inspired by the domed architectural structures of Rome, namely the Pantheon. The Pantheon was a structure built during the reign of Augustus, commissioned by one of the Roman consuls, and pioneered in the implication of domes in architecture. Early Florence was inspired by this dome -like form, and used the Roman style of architecture, the ‘all-Antica’ style, in order to emulate a similar style in their Church. The Florentines practiced their revival of ancient arts, through the use of the classical Roman forms of architecture, and the implication of the Florentine style in the Hall demonstrates that the principle of ‘all-antica’ still exists, since the styles of ancient architecture continues to influence the forms of today.

The Gates of Paradise, Roman Imagery, and A Synagogue: What These Three Things Have In Common Will Shock You!


This picture shows the doors to a synagogue on West End Avenue of Manhattan Beach. It immediately seemed to me like a much simpler version of the baptistery doors called the “Gates of Paradise,” by Ghiberti.


As you can see, the baptistery doors are decorated with scenes from the life of the Biblical figure Isaac, using linear perspective to add depth to the nearly-flat backgrounds cast in bronze.

The doors in my original picture, however, are much plainer and bear only three repeated images: a wolf, an axe with wheat and other grains, and a menorah. Considering their context, these likely represent objects of cultural significance. The wolf is often a symbol of Joseph (Isaac’s grandson), and the menorah is a religious artifact with hundreds of years of history attached. The axe and grains are a little more vague, but they could be standing in for the strength and beauty (respectively) of Israel and/or its inhabitants. There are no backgrounds portrayed at all, yet the overall effect is strikingly familiar to those acquainted with Ghiberti’s gates.

Both pictures show a set of dark doors embellished with a series of lighter metal images that have relevance to Biblical figures or scenes, organized into rows. Each set of decoration serves the basic purpose of making the doors more aesthetically pleasing, although one (Ghiberti’s) looks like it took much more time and effort because it is so much more intricate. Ghiberti’s doors are much taller and more imposing, whereas the synagogue’s doors are the usual height and just enhanced by the pictures. Also, it is unclear whether the first picture’s images are actually made of bronze, but it does not appear to be the same material as Ghiberti’s doors.

The pictures on my doors could easily apply to Roman culture too, although the context of their placement makes this extremely unlikely as its original purpose. The wolf has long been a symbol of Rome, because of the legend of the founders Remus and Romulus being raised by a she-wolf Lupa. When other powers rebelled against Rome (like the slave revolts Rome claimed were the “reconquering” of Sicily), a coin was made depicting a boar (the symbol of the Italic peninsula) trampling a wolf. The axe could be seen as referring to the axe of the fasces, a bundle of rods symbolizing imperial power, and the grain to the latifundia, a system of plantation farming that kept the Roman economy afloat. The menorah is a traditionally Jewish symbol, but the arch of Titus (pictured below) depicts a menorah because it shows the conquering of Jerusalem and the aftermath of the destruction of the second Temple (which stood on the hill that now holds the Dome of the Rock). Therefore even the menorah could in theory be a reminder of Roman triumphs.


The doors I took a picture of are similar to Ghiberti’s Gates of Paradise and reminiscent of Roman imagery and symbolism. Their purpose is a little more simplistic than the works of antiquity, but overall they are made for the same reason: to look nice.

-Chaya Ovits, team Venus

Gothic Church


On the way to school I passed Our Lady Of Refuge Catholic Church at 2020 Foster Avenue, Brooklyn, which is in Gothic style. The top of the roof is pointed as was popular with many Gothic buildings. There is a decorative column in front and in the background you can see part of the spires and flying buttresses that it has.
It is different than the original style because the toweresque fluting on the outside of the building is built into the wall and therefore the walls are holding up the building in addition to the towers. Also the pointed roof is just a triangular roof and in the original Gothic style the roof would have been a pointed dome.
The term ‘Gothic’ comes from the Goths, a tribe that attacked Rome. The Italians believed that the style was a barbaric antithesis of their prized Classical architecture. They, therefore, named the style after the people who attacked Rome. However, as we have learned in both Art and Classics, the term barbarian doesn’t mean a bad wild man necessarily. In Ancient Greece and Rome it just meant a people whose customs were different then what they were used to, so too, the Gothic style wasn’t trying to destroy Classical style. It was simply different than what the Italians were used to.
Hinda Honikman, Team Mars






David: A Reinterpretation of Greatness

David and Goliath: Art1010 Unit 3

1 Samuel 17 tells the story of Goliath of Gath the biblical warrior defeated by the young David in the Book of Samuel. David, a young man, who never fought in a war in his life, defeats not only a champion, but also a giant who everyone fears. It’s a true show of mental and spiritual strength. The biblical story of David closely relates to Donatello’s David in the Bargello, Florence and Michelangelo’s David in Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence that we both covered in class.

Donatello’s bronze statue of David (late 1420s – 1460s) showed him sword in hand, with one foot on Goliath’s head, while Michelangelo’s David (1501 – 04) a marble more heroic nude stand-alone sculpture showed him as victorious and mighty leader and warrior. Michelangelo’s David was a depiction of the biblical hero was unlike that of earlier Renaissance depictions of David, however Donatello’s depiction of his David best represented that of the David in biblical terms. Donatello’s statue was bare and so much more intimate. It was simple and told the true biblical story of David, the young shepherd.

Both of these sculptures were similar. Both Michelangelo and Donatello’s David’s represented war victories: the victory of the Israelites. Both sculptures were made to highlight an accomplishment in history. They are both nude and contrapposto statues. In Donatello and Michelangelo’s artwork, both David’s represents Florence however there is a difference in each Goliath, In Donatello’s, Goliath represents Milan. Michelangelo’s represents Rome during Medici power.

Michelangelo’s David was High Renaissance whereas Donatello David was Early Renaissance. Both statues differed in height: Donatello’s David stands at 5 ‘ 2 and Michelangelo’s stands more than three times that at 17’. The material used by Donatello: bronze differed from the marble Michelangelo used for his. Donatello’s David’s shows humility whereas Michelangelo’s does not.


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David and Goliath: Old Stories Made New – Classics Unit 2

The story of David and Goliath can be related to our Classics class in that it’s a story of many retellings. An old story made new with relatively similar social and/or economic issues. In the article that I read “David and Goliath, A Modern Retelling” by Bryan Allain, the writer was able to capture the story in such an interesting way – Football: American that is. He took the story to a more analytical perspective with the use of a sportscaster. He managed to tell the story using todays understanding. He used football terms that weren’t known then (I doubt “American” football was even known then) such as “David sprinting towards the 50-yard line to meet Goliath, … looks like, umm, an iPhone case?” He incorporated objects and narrative that weren’t used then with ones used now and made the story flow nonetheless. It connected with the original biblical story and brought a new perspective on the social issue.

In the play, Medea the main protagonist of the story has many social issues: passion and rage: revenge and pride. Her husband is leaving her and marrying King Creon’s daughter. She is in misery and doesn’t know what to do. Her social issue is that she shall now be alone and further cast out as a barbarian (foreigner) of the land. – Her social conflict.

The story of David and Goliath speaks of different social issues but social issues nonetheless. Faced with the charge of the Philistines in the Valley of Elah, Saul and the Israelites faced the issue of regaining their land. In the biblical story, “Goliath, the champion of the Philistines comes out between the lines and challenges the Israelites to send out a champion of their own to decide the outcome in single combat, however Saul and his people are afraid of him – their social conflict.

This story of David “Old Made New” comments on the social issues of religion and the capacity at to what it can do. Although the social issues in “David and Goliath” and “Medea” are different, they’re both social issues in everyday lives. King Saul has to deal with burden of Goliath and the Philistines. Medea has to deal with the conflict of being an outcast and being shunned from her community and husband. The search and overcome for solitude best reflects the similarities both pieces have in modern day society.

Venus of Urbino in Titanic

Over the weekend, I was watching Titanic and I came across a scene that reminded me of Titian’s Venus of Urbino (1538) painting. The “Draw me like one of your French girls” scene shows how Rose (Kate Winslet) lays horizontally on the couch across from Jack (Leonardo Dicaprio) in her truest and most vulnerable form (nude). He sketches a picture of her just as Titian had painted a picture of a nude woman, depicted as “Venus”.

Titian’s composition focuses more on color. As shown in the painting, the color of the drapes are green, which also appear across the room on the drawers that hold the Venus’s clothes. Similarly, the red of the flowers in her hand and the red of the cushions can be seen on one of the maid’s dresses. Not only did Titian use color as one of the main factors for creating his piece, but he used perspective and proportions to balance his work. As shown, Venus is the largest figure, meaning she is the most important piece, but the audience can also see her dog by her feet and two maids in the background assisting her in picking out an outfit to cloth her. They are tiny figures, but they help create balance in the composition. Titian uses glazing of the oil paint to give Venus a soft appeal, giving a sense of sensuality.

Jack’s drawing solely depicts Rose as the main focus. The only other objects in the drawing are the couch that she’s laying on and the sapphire pendant around her neck. Similarly, both the sketch of Rose and the painting of Venus show them laying down diagonally, propped up by pillows, staring directly at the audience. Unlike Titian’s painting, where the composition is divided into two parts (showing Venus’s body in the front and smaller version of maids in the back (because of distance) to balance out her body mass), Rose is drawn as the center of attention. In addition, her body is more proportional than Venus’s. Venus’s torso is elongated and more wide and her feet and tiny compared to her body. Rose’s body is drawn more proportionally with precise lines and shading of the nude body.

Both portray the female nude body as a form of art and beauty. Although in modern day society, female nudity is nothing new. It is in music videos, movies, art, etc. In the past nudity was found to be shameful and only sacred to one’s husband behind closed doors.

Relating it to classics, in Herodotus’s Excerpts, Candaules was the King of Lydia. He was so proud of  his wife’s beauty that he wanted to boast about it share it with Gyges, his most trusted bodyguard. He persistently made Gyges look at his wife’s naked body. She caught him and the next day she summoned him. In 1.8-13: How Candaules Lost His Kingdom, the Queen Nyssia proposed, “Take thy choice, Gyges… Slay Candaules, and thereby become my lord, and obtain the Lydian throne, or die this moment in his room… It must needs be that either he perish by whose counsel this thing was done, or thou, who saw me naked, and so didst break our usages.” This was a significant scene because
it led to Gyges making a choice to kill himself or the king because he saw the Queen’s (woman) naked body, which was the most sacred thing about a female. In their culture, the nudity of a woman was perceived as shameful. For Gyges to see the Queen naked was a big deal, leading to Candaules’s demise.

Mary Huang, Team Vulcan

Neighborhood Church Influenced by Greek and Roman Architecture?


While I was riding my bike around the neighborhood with my friends this weekend, I noticed something about this neighborhood church that I haven’t before. In my opinion i believe in some ways it contains features used for Greek and Roman architectures. For example, as you can see at the entrance it features a pediment which is also used frequently as seen on Greek architectures such as the Parthenon and the Pantheon which is a Roman architecture. Adding on, surrounding the St. Marks church it features flat columns. Although it was uncommon for the Greeks and Romans to use flat columns for their architectures and instead they used circular columns, you can see that Greek and Roman architectures certainly had a influence for this church. Adding on, similar to St. Peters Church created by Michelangelo and multiple other architectures during the Italian renaissance it also features flat columns.  As you look at the St. Marks church’s entabliture it contains a cornice, a frieze and a architrave on its entabliture. This is similar to the Parthenon ,Pantheon and St. Peter’s church because it also featured the three elements in its entabliture. Carrying on under the pediment of St. Marks Church it contains some sort of writing on its architrave which is similar to St. Peter’s architrave under its pediment. In conclusion, I found this interesting because I would pass through this church every day when I was going and coming back from school. But never once did I notice that it had any sorts of relations or influences from Greek and Roman architectures.

An NYC Courthouse or a Roman courthouse?


It is fairly obvious that the exterior of the Pantheon served as the inspiration for the New York State Supreme Courthouse located on 60 Centre Street. The architect drew upon the classical Roman temple form as the basis for the Court’s structure. A broad set of steps sweeps up from Foley Square to a massive Corinthian colonnade covering most of the front of the courthouse, which is topped by an elaborate triangular pediment of engraved figures. The frieze bears the inscription “The True Administration of Justice is the Firmest Pillar of Good Government”, which I believe is directly quoted from George Washington. This structure and the Federal Hall building we had visited in Wall Street are both very similar to Roman style, specifically the Pantheon. Besides its detail, all three sites provide a grand monumental entrance that screams prominence and professionalism. The traditional style of the pantheon has architecturally inspired many sites ranging from the renaissance era to today, like Brunelleschi’s dome, the Courthouse, and Federal Hall. The facade of the courthouse looks like it was built with granite, which differs from the Roman concrete medium that the Pantheon is comprised of. Overall, I think that the architectural design and techniques used to construct the courthouse correctly represents the building’s purpose and asserts the power of the judicial branch.

-Lauren Ishay

Linear Perspective Around the World!


I have few other images pertaining linear perspective, but I thought this one was the most interesting. This image was taken in August 27th, 2016 around 3pm in my country. At the time I didn’t realize how relevant this picture would be in history. Brunelleschi’s experiment demonstrated that linear perspective could produce an incredibly realistic illusion of three-dimensional space on a two dimensional surface. He develops a system with just a few essential elements and through these elements is able to construct an accurate scientific one-point perspective. They include a vanishing point, which is at the viewer’s horizon line as well as serious number of orthogonals. The image strictly focuses on the religious structure (vanishing points). The man to the left seems to be bigger than the temple itself. This supports the idea that objects closer are portrayed to be larger in size than objects far away, even if they obtain similar size. In this case, the temple is bigger. The trees on the left and right draw our attention to the temple as we see it descending in the direction of the structure. This image can also be connected to classics because the structure has Islamic writing on it and non-figural, (the blue) and it consists of several domes (not visible in the image, only two). This is an Islamic temple where people from different countries visit to pray, explore, and appreciate. To conclude, this temple was influenced by Byzantine Architecture in the use of domes to show authority and power.

-Amir, Team Juno

BTS, old made new.

BTS- Blood Sweat and Tears

Everyone has been saying my obsession with this Korean boy band is unhealthy, but I can prove otherwise. While its true that especially American singers don’t have much meaning to their songs, I could argue that BTS (방탄소년단) is different. The more songs they release the more I realize there is a connected story between all of them and that they are trying to tell us something other than just the song. In this blog I will be discussing their hit song of 2016- Blood, Sweat, and Tears (피 땀 눈물) While its true that it is aesthetically pleasing to look at, we shall focus and dig deeper.

To begin with, they are in a museum. Aside the fact that there are several sculptures that were inspired by Hellenistic and Classical periods, there is a big painting that caught my attention.This painting is ‘The Fall of the Rebel Angels’ by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. There is a certain theme of Fallen angels and temptations throughout the Music Video.

The painting this person (Jin) is looking at is very intense. The way I see it is a battle of hell and heaven. Its intensity and emotion reminded me of a painting by Giulio Quaglio, located in Ljubljana Cathedral in Slovenia.


Both of these paintings give a feeling of darkness, as if there is a battle. They are both very intense. Furthermore, this painting by Guilio Quaglio is painted on the ceiling, just like what? You guessed it. Just like the painting in Sistine Chapel, by Michelangelo.


We are not only a minute into the video, but I already found so many things that come from early Renaissance period that started in Florence. This is all about revival, old things made new. I really appreciate how they [BTS] are able to incorporate so many complex things into their music video.

Additionally, fast forward to 3:46, the music video shows someone blindfolding one of the members, and the lyrics go:

Kill me gently,

Close my eyes with your hands,

Cant resist it anyway

Cant even run away anymore

You just too sweet too sweet too sweet

As I previously mentioned the painting of Sistine Chapel, I think there is one fragment about the painting that can be applied here. It would be the fragment of temptation of Eve wanting to bite on the forbidden fruit.


Also, the very beginning of the music video, to tie into the theme of temptations we encounter this fragment:


Behind the neon lights, we see the painting which shows ‘The lament for Icarus’ by H. J. Draper. As we know, Icarus was warned by his father to not fly neither too low, because the humidity of the sea will melt the wax, neither too high as the hot sun will do the same. However, he disobeyed and listened to his temptations and did as he pleased which caused his death as his wings melted and he crashed into the sea. Similarly, both Adam and Eve knew they shall not eat this apple, as it was prohibited by God. Again, they just like Icarus disobeyed and followed their temptations and ate the fruit of knowledge.

Later in the music video, we see one of the members uncovering his eyes, and he walks to a giant statue.. And kisses it. I believe that is him making a pact with the fallen angel, from that point he was able to see everything as it is. Similarly, after Adam and Eve ate the forbiden fruit, they were able to see truly, they recognized their nudity and felt ashamed. Not to sound too cliche, but they were finally able to truly see.

I would like to use this great opportunity and tie in my classics post here. As we learned, ancient Greek theater was always religious, and they would tell stories already known by everyone. As you can see, this music video contains many religious aspects. Just like the ancient Greeks, the producers of this music video in a way retold a story that many of us read in a Bible. They presented it to us in a new way, yet were able to deliver same meaning. Another very interesting scene that I would like to mention is the “Last Supper” scene. 

Here we see them gathered by the table, with all sitting but one. That one that was contemplating through out the entire music video. He has been seen looking at the painting in the beginning, he is also the one to start seeing things as they are, and now he is the one looking into distance. Why is looking into distance significant you may think, well it is significant because he seem to either know or anticipate something. Similar to the “Last Supper” by Leonardo da Vinci.


This is a painting of Jesus eating his last supper before crucifixion. Jesus was aware of his fate, upcoming betrayals and what is awaiting him. Just like this member he knew something was going to happen.

So, this is the end of my analysis. This video contains a lot of symbolism, and it is just impossible for me to thoroughly go over all of them. I gave brief points that I found interesting and similar to our both art and classics classes. It is very complicated, and I advise all of you to watch the video and make your own conclusions. Do you see the similarities I see? You have different theories and analysis? Whether we share similar opinion on this topic or not, the truth. I tried my best explaining, and I hope you’re not confused. 

  • Diana, Team Mercury.

The Modern Day Struggles of Being Cupid

“Give Me Love” – Ed Sheeran (Music Video)

Screenshot_20171111-173758   Screenshot (74)


Red Line = Orthogonals.    Yellow line = Horizontal Line,    Green Dot = Vanishing Point

While listening to one of Ed Sheeran’s popular song, “Give Me Love,” I noticed that the song’s music video incorporates many elements from our Art and Classics course.

One incredible development during the Renaissance was Brunelleschi’s system of linear perspective. His formation of lines and diagonals enabled artists and architects to manipulate images into the illusion of reality. Space, shape, and size furthered Brunelleschi’s success of recreating life’s visual experiences into a still image. When looking from any individual’s eyes, our surroundings are examples of linear perspective itself.

In the screenshot above, there are qualities of linear perspective that can be identified with the understanding of how the objects and subjects of the video are seen. At a close observation, the overhead lights form orthogonal lines (red lines) of the image. The light beams move towards the middle of the photo, and direct the viewer’s eyes to the vanishing point (green dot) of the picture. The tunnel walls also acts as orthogonal lines. As the bricks of the walls move towards down the tunnel, the lines become more condensed, and create the illusion of space and depth. The light’s reflections and shadows also add a subtle sense of distance, because the light and shadows seem to merge together when approaching the vanishing point. The outline of the concrete ground also acts as an orthogonal line that points to the vanishing point. Though the horizon line (yellow line) is not obvious to the eye, it meets the middle of the image as the plane where it meets the viewer’s eye level. Touching back onto how the still image depicts distance, the figure in the foreground is proportionally smaller in scale due to the distance between the camera and the subject.

Screenshot_20171111-174127      Screenshot_20171111-173907

When directing your focus to the subject, the woman has a pair of cupid wings that is explored through the music video’s plot. The story unravels references to Aphrodite in which we have discussed in Classics class.

In the music video, the main subject is dressed with a pair of wings and holds a bow and arrow. The video’s plot reveals how she takes on the roll as a cupid and shoots others to fall in love with each other. The subject’s act as a cupid relates to Aphrodite’s abilities to cause people to fall in love due to her title of being the Goddess of Love and procreation. The video’s subject’s actions can be compared to the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite where William Blake Tyrrell translates that Aphrodite’s:

clothed in a dress more gleaming than bright fire. Like the moon, it shimmered around her soft breasts, a wonder to behold. She wore coiled bracelets and shining earrings, and beautiful necklaces were about her tender neck, beautiful, golden, glittering (86-90).

Aphrodite’s presence attracts and seduces those around her, and is reflected in Ed Sheeran’s song. In the homeric hymn, Aphrodite is known to be a elegant, lustful, beautiful, and graceful Goddess that is ineffable. Her powers become a strong influence over other people’s actions and emotions, which can overrule their thoughts and morals. The homeric hymn discusses the consequences of love, lies, and sex that Aphrodite is responsible for. However, most references to Aphrodite are usually the immaculate ideals of falling in love and being loved.

Similar to Ed Sheeran’s music video, the presence of the woman shows her duties as a cupid. She travels around the city and uses her power of love to counteract the dark and bleak night. Those alone begin to fall in love with the people around them, however, it juxtaposes the song’s lyrics. The cupid’s inner conflict and idea of love is enhanced by Sheeran’s song, and convey a more obvious result of love that the Homeric Hymn does not quite relate to modern love. Though the central theme of love is carried out by the woman with the white wings, her job as a cupid is not as fantastical as it seems. The subject of the video struggles with finding love herself, and has a inner conflict while she watches her actions help others fall in love. In the last scene of the video, it’s seen that she has stabbed herself with her cupid’s bow in attempt to make her fall in love. Ed Sheeran’s music video and the Homeric hymn portray a large difference in the society of today and the past. Sappho reveals the struggles of being in love, whereas, Ed Sheeran expresses the struggles of finding love.


Vicky Lee, Team Hermes



Rest In Peace

unnamed-2-676x507[Taken in Greenwood Cemetery –,-73.9866807,277m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x89c25ac2ce420ae7:0xad7fab8221c4fc67!8m2!3d40.6590043!4d-73.995602?hl=en]

At this burial site, a man named Albert Ross Parsons is buried here. His tomb was created to resemble an Egyptian pyramid because of Parsons’ obsession with Egyptian culture. Parsons was a fanatic about the culture to the extent that he spent most of his life researching about Egypt. He even wrote a book about the culture because that is what the majority of his life studies focused on.

In the reading, “Pseudo-Callistenes”, the exerpt says, “Then he made a bed of wax and put on it the statue he had made of Olympias. He lit a fire and poured there on the broth of the plant, saying over it the vows suited for these doings, until the spirits appeared to Olympias; for he saw, from the signs there, Ammon united with her. And he rose and said, ‘My lady, you have conceived from me a boy child who shall be your avenger.’” The author of the “Alexander Romance” is trying to emphasize that Alexander can be compared to the gods because of the way he looks and victories in battles. Alexander is romanticized into a godly image because of his physical attributes. His horns represent Alexander’s relation to the Egyptian god, Ammon. This shows his divine ancestry, which causes people to believe he is divine as well. Also, his victorious in war further amplify the divine nature of Alexander because he was able to defeat many and help a lot of people during his reign. This can be connected to the pyramid tomb because in the past, Egyptians buried their Pharaohs in tombs because of their royal status. The Egyptian royalty that rests within the pyramid tomb was considered to be divine and godly. This is how the people who worshipped their rulers in Egypt treated their Pharaohs. The way people treat Alexander’s godly status can be compared to that of a Pharaoh because of the way people romanticize the godliness of these rulers.

In the second unit of art history, we learned about the influence in Christianity in Roman art and architecture. During the fourth century, Christianity was a religion that was rapidly growing, but it remained a mystery, which caused it to be the target of ostracized by the public. However, Constantine was able to help the transition of Christianity because of the amount of support he gave to the mysterious religion that forced its followers to only follow one religion, which was Christianity itself only. Constantine’s support for Christianity grew after the Battle of the Milvian Bridge because his victory was deemed as a sign from the heavens, meaning he thought the gods had helped him with his battle. After this battle, Constantine became the strongest supporter of Christianity. This relates to the image because in front of the pyramid tomb, there are statues of Mary (mother of Jesus) holding a baby, presumably Jesus, and Jesus holding a lamb. Mary and Jesus are two iconic figures in Christianity because Jesus is the god people worship in Christianity. He is the most important person in the religion of Christianity. However, the second most important person is the one who created Jesus, which is Mary, his mother. The sculptures of these two significant people were standing outside of the pyramid tomb as if they were guarding it for Parsons since he’s resting within it.

– Rebecca Lee, Team Jupiter

Lavish Designs


When walking passed a church in my neighborhood I noticed the designs on the doors. I thought they resembled the lavish designs that were found inside the Hagia Sophia. They both depict a story while also providing decoration. I thought the circular discs looked familiar.While not providing the same function or displaying the same images, they are both used to decorate the area. Another thing I thought that the circles looked similar to were the fasces depicted on coins that represented the power of a Roman magistrate in office. Each circle represents power. In the picture of the church, the power is placed in the hands of God and the Church, whereas in the Hagia Sophia the circles are ornaments depicting the power of Justinian and his power in the house of the floating dome. And lastly the fasces were always depicted on coins, which were distributed to remind citizens of their magistrates power.


Unexpected Discovery in my Neighborhood

6170F74F-CA8D-46D4-9962-9C58097D8EC4It was a very common school day and I was walking on the way to the B6 bus station. I gave a glance at the building that was on the other side of the street while I was waiting for the traffic light and guess what, surprisingly I discovered all that the architecture design element that we saw during our field trip. It was the Chase bank on 19 Ave, 86th Street. It shocked me because I pass by there almost every day and I had never look at it in details. One thing that I found it is similar to the Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House that we visited is there is also a stone head on the top part of the building, but this chase bank has it above a transom window and the Custom House has it as a keystone in the entrance arch, even this bank also has an arch too, but it only serves as decoration because it cannot support the weight of the building. Also, there are two symbols of the sides of a liberty dime on the wall, the back side coin is a fasces next to the left Corinthian order and the top side is next to the right Corinthian order. Fasces means authority and power, coincidentally it fits perfectly of how Chase bank is important to our economy. The Corinthian orders of this building are very decent, different than the Corinthian orders that we see in class, they have something more than just leaves by the bottom, they also have a beautiful flower in the center. Also, there is a piece of a big clock with flours and leaves on the bottom and two eagles on the sides located right in front of the transom window. This is a very beautiful and amazing discovery in my neighborhood, I am shocked again by the beauty of these buildings and very admire the designers.

Artistic Church

This is the Trinity Church in New York City. It is very eye catching and not easily forgettable. The outside shows a Gothic revival architectural style. Like the churches we learned of in class, the Trinity church’s beauty lies within the interior of the building, unlike Roman temples which are suppose to be appreciated from the outside. The interior is also structured like a basilica. It has a central nave, with aisles and a raised apse at the other end of the nave. Once walking in through the one entrance, your eyes focus on one spot, the murals and the apse. The windows are decorated with stained glass and harbor figural images, most likely those of Jesus and other important figures in the Christian religion. Like the temples in Greece and Rome, churches are used to worship the entity that the people believe in. The Temple of Aphrodite in Cyprus, that we learned in Classics was used to worship the goddess of fertility.

-Fariah, Team Hermes



Soho’s Church


The Grace Church in Soho, Manhattan is a building that cannot be ignored when presented in plain sight. In Unit 2, we discovered how Christian customs assimilated itself among the Romans and soon Christianity was an adopted religion. The mixing and matching of different cultures flourished during this time. I noticed a distinct difference in the architecture between the churches in Rome and modern day ones that can be found in the city such as the Grace Church. In Rome, they had basilicas (Christian churches) that had high wide central aisles and lower narrow side aisles. The churches in Rome were more elongated and the outline of the perimeters were rectangular with the apse providing a semi-cylindrical interior. The Grace Church is structured to be more vertical in terms of its exterior outline, but basilicas are more horizontal. The interior of the Grace Church is similar to Roman basilicas. It too has a nave that leads to the front of of the altar where the apse is located. In the past, basilicas such as the Santa Sabina had multiple purposes. It was a place where law courts were held, Christian beliefs were introduced, and where important people met to discuss issues. The Grace Church, is primarily used for individuals to find their own salvation, make prayers, preach and learn about Christian history. They explicitly explain Christianity in its whole rather than use the space for other purposes.
Relating it to classics class, the artwork is very different from what we’ve seen in the past. Greeks believed in multiple gods and made temples to honor the gods they believed in. They would have statues on the pediments that told a story of how victorious their god was to relay a message that Greeks were the best/ always win wars. The Grace Church has a similar foundation in which it was a sacred place where people are able to worship a god that they believe in, but instead of praying to multiple, they only pray to one. The artwork itself also tells a story, but not of violence, victory, and glory, as Greek buildings like the Parthenon had. The Grace Church’s exterior artwork tells a story of how Christianity came to be, with the Virgin Mary, Adam and Eve, and important figures of the church like nuns and bishops. In the picture above, it shows Mary holding baby Jesus. Even though a churches and temples honor gods, they do so different ways, but still share similar traits when it comes to worshiping a celestial being.

Mary Huang, Team Vulcan

Mosaics in Las Vegas


Earlier this year, my family and I took a trip to Las Vegas, Nevada. As we were being tourists along the famous Las Vegas Strip, we walked into The Venetian hotel. I was taking pictures of almost everything and I knew I had to snap a photo of this display of the word LOVE. I found it beautiful how the letters lined up with the waterfall in the background. But the true focus is the mosaic artwork in the fountain in the front. I hadn’t paid much attention to the fountain when I was there, but I noticed it after I looked back at the photos I took. The mosaic in the fountain relates to the mosaic found in the San Vitale. The Justinian Mosaic is one of the most significant mosaic artworks in the San Vitale. It depicts Justinian with his clergy members on his left side while the members of the imperial administration are on his right side. He is wearing a halo, a crown, and a purple robe. Although it appears that the Bishop Maximianus on the right is stepping in front of him, Justinian’s hand is still in front of the the bishop. He’s holding a bowl associated with the Eucharist, which indicates that he is leading the procession.

This display also reminded me of Aphrodite from what we learned about in Classics. Aphrodite is the goddess of love and beauty. She used her irresistible beauty in any manner that she wanted, no matter the cost. For instance, she made Zeus fall in love with mortal women. She was also caught having an affair with Ares, the god of war, and shamed in front of all of the gods. They were eventually left to and she later became the mother of his children.

-Estrella Roberts, Team Vulcan

Sappho in NYC

This marble statue is of Sappho and her lyre. This statue relates to the “Aphrodite” unit of Classics class where we discussed Sappho and her lyric poetry. In class, we learned that Sappho was “The Original Lesbian”, known to write poems to men and women.

This statue is located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It dates back to 1895, but it reminded me of the statue of the Three Goddesses, from the East pediment of the Parthenon (c.438-442 BCE). This statue of Sappho, like the statue of the Three Goddesses, appears realistic, because of the details and intricate folds in the drapery. The composition of Sappho is similar to the composition of the Goddess all the way to the right, where both are reclined back in a luxurious manner. There is contrapposto and drama in the overall statues, which are hallmarks of the Hellenistic period.

Although the statues are similar in composition, details and even medium (both made from marble), they are from different time periods. The Three Goddesses dates back to the Hellenistic Period of the Greek Culture, whereas the statue of Sappho dates back to the 19th century of French Culture. I would guess that the statue of Sappho is trying to emulate Hellenistic aspects of realism, emotion, and drama, and it does a good job at it because upon seeing this statue at the museum, I thought about the Goddess all the way to the right in the statue of the Three Goddesses.



–  Isra Nazlin, Team Minerva


Can the past be the Future?

The term i searched was “Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” and I chose “The Collapse of Empires”. It seems the targeted audience are people who live in countries that are considered to be “superpowers”. It goes over how some of the greatest empires in all of history at some point collapsed. As stated by Kevin Hartnett “Our country’s political gridlock and economic recession have prompted talk about the end of the American era” is his view that there is even talks about dangers that may happen to America. The economic recession and political gridlock, which is a difficulty to pass laws that appease citizens, are factors that can affect America. This is similar to what had happened to the Romans, “had left Rome’s citizens unwilling to fight for their empire”  which is a type of political gridlock. So already there is a link between the Romans citizens and the American people.

Public distrust toward the government is very critical because if the people who are meant to support, stability and be the backbone of the country can not even place their trust with them that can lead to future backlash. Could what happen to Rome possibly happen to another superpower of today? It seems the intended target is towards the people of powerful countries and to alert them that there trust toward their respective governments are what keeps them afloat. Although it is hard to compare the Roman empire to any country today, there are similarities that can be found between itself and the Superpower countries of today.

In this unit, I realized that it was linked to what we had discussed in Art 1010. We learned how Romans were so fascinated by Greek architecture and sculptures and included them into their own works of art.

-Al-Bishr Askar , Team Hephaestus


Hartnett, Kevin. “The collapse of empires.” Bookmarks, July-Aug. 2010,|A229860880&v=2.1&u=cuny_broo39667&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1

Saint Joseph’s Oratory in Canada


The picture above is taken when my family and I travel to Canada. This church was called Saint Joseph’s Oratory, located in 3800 Queen Mary Rd, Montreal, QC H3V 1H6, Canada. (the address was found in google and copy it down… I don’t really mind where the picture was before…) This church is somehow similar to the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, they both have big doom on the church. The difference between the past and present would be the camera, car, lantern, and me (the guy who hugs with his mom is me… my dad took this picture…)


Inside the church, there are some people sitting on the chairs, portraits are all around the place, and since this is a church there are crosses all over the place. I myself is not a Christian, but according to what I have learned in the art history class I would say this is very similar to the inside of Basilica of Santa Sabina in Rome, but I think it applied to all the Christian churches…

The connection part to classic class, I would say that even though Roman was the origin in Rome and Rome for now is the holy land for all Christian, but in the ancient Roman Republic period, there are no churches like this…


And the last picture, that was taken when I and my dad climbed up the steps and took the picture of the top part of the church. (the person who stands in the middle of the steps taking the picture is my dad)

Capitol Hill

Outside view of The U.S. Supreme Court Building that was modeled after classical Roman temples.

I chose an image of Capitol Hill, which is in Washington D.C, and is the seat of the U.S government. It was built in 1793, and serves as an important function in our government today. The building has been renovated over the years, and the last one was made in 2008, to create a visitor center. The architecture also relates to that of Greek and Roman ideologies, as we discussed in Unit 2. The architecture of Capitol Hill, can be described as neoclassical, meaning it was built to resemble classic styles used by the Greeks, and Romans. Tall columns, symmetry in the shapes used, pediments shaped like triangles, and domed roofs. Many buildings for the United States government were built during the time of the Greek Revival, which influenced the style of the architecture. The Capitol Hill building, was also meant to be a replica of an ancient Roman temple, as Thomas Jefferson suggested.

Marisa -Team Ares

Mosaic in Chinatown


Whilst walking home for school, I was wrapping my head around what I could possibly take a picture of for art history, when it quite literally hit me smack-dab in the face. I was walked by a literal piece of art that most people would just walk by daily. This is a picture of a mosaic that I happened by in the MTA subway station on Canal street. The reason why I chose to take a picture of this mosaic for my unit 2 blog of Art History was because it reminded me of an art piece that we went over in class. It reminded me of the Justinian mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale. Similarly to the Justinian mosaic, this mosaic uses a variety of different colored and different shaped individual tiles to orchestrate a specific and intricate design/pattern. However this work of art doesn’t quite match its historical counterpart in all aspects. Unlike the Justinian mosaic, this mosaic doesn’t create different and specific figures, like Justinian himself, his administration officers or advisers, his soldiers, or clergy. It definitely doesn’t illustrate any hidden or subtle religious/political meanings within its tiles as well. This mosaic actually just conveys the location that it’s in, which is Canal street. Yet, it does convey a message with it, that can be unknown to people who aren’t all that well-versed in Chinese. upon the sides of the text, “Canal street”, there are Chinese characters that stand out amongst the rest of the colored tiles. Due to the fact that I don’t want to make a fool of myself by butchering the pronunciation of these characters, I’ll just settle for what they mean. These Chinese characters can be translated as, “welcome to Chinatown”, which, like I said before, is where this piece of art is located.

Furthermore, I would like to take this time to connect what we learned in unit 2 of Art History to what we are learning in Classical Culture. In art history we learned about the architecture of churches and how much religion had on not just architecture but other works of art as well. One that pops out of my head is the Sarcophagus of Junius Basus, one that is quite literally littered with religious symbols and sculptures. Similarly we learned, in Classical Culture, about how big of a role religion played in culture as well. We learned that religion played a huge role in ancient theater, and in fact a lot plays were acted during religious festivals or festivals that were dedicated to a certain god or goddess. For example, we learned about the festival of Dionysus, the Greek god of Wine, and how there would be plays during each day that the festival took place. It is just astounding of how much religion affected two differing things, churches and art work and theater, and the effects it’s had on early civilizations as a whole. And it is a testament to religion’s role in society and civilization that it has stood the waves of time and is still hugely prominent and prevalent even in modern times.

Biblical Interpretation of Slavery


I searched a term Sicily Rome “Slave rebellion” “the United States” and I found a lot of different sources. One that caught my attention was a chapter from the book Biblical Interpretation called Slavery and Inhumanity by J. Albert Harrill. The subject of this chapter is about examining Roman slavery as part of the wider history of world slavery. The author also refers to emperor Augustus and Constantine as part of Christianity, which makes a connection to our Art History class, when we talked about the beginning of the Christianity and Constantine and the sculptore of Augustus – emperor. The primary intended audience for it will be people who would like to explore more about slavery in Rome in a Biblical point of view that author is making. The writer makes the connection between slavery and refers to the wars by saying “ The world history of slavery reveals slave revolts to be extremely rare occurrences; only four outright slave wars are known: one in modern Haiti, two in ancient Sicily, and one led by Spartacus in ancient Italy.” (Harrill 509), and then gives us more details about it. He also makes the connection between the United States and slavery “ancient slavery was relatively humane and so wholly unlike modern slavery in the New World” (Harrill 508), and by saying New World her refers to the United States. The reading that was assigned earlier for us and is connected to this source is Aristotle and Xenophon, On the Spartan Constitution, because both authors refer to Sparta. Aristotle and Xenophon say “To be present, he selected the keenest of the prefects, and gave to each the command of a division. And so at Sparta, the boys are never without a ruler”.

MLA citation:
Harrill, J. Albert. “Slavery and Inhumanity.” Biblical Interpretation, vol. 21, no. 4-5, 2013, pp. 506–514.

Edyta, team Aphrodite

Saint Finbar is like the Basilica of Santa Sabina?

The image on the left is the inside of the Saint Finbar Catholic Church which is located on Bay 20th Street in Brooklyn New York. Over on the right, the photo is of the Basilica of Santa Sabina which was located in Rome. The insides of these buildings are very similar, not so much the outside but we can see that the Saint Finbar Church was probably influenced by the Basilica of Santa Sabina. A basilica usually has a longitudinal axis that helps focus on the opposite end of the entrance when people enter. That is how it is similar to the Catholic Church located in Brooklyn. The center of attention is mainly the opposite of the entrance where people can walk down to. Another similarity would be the arches and columns. The arches in the Catholic Church are a little bigger and not so many of them whereas the arches in Santa Sabina has a lot more and I think this is due to the length of the buildings. The columns for both of these buildings are also placed in very similar places which are around the focal point and they help lead you down to the main center of attention. The columns appear to be Corinthian columns as well in both images. One big similarity is the semi-circular space which both buildings seem to have, it is not too visible in Saint Finbar but it definitely is there. There are differences between the two which is the material the columns were made out of. The columns in Santa Sabina appear to be made out of concrete while the columns in Saint Finbar appear to be made out of some kind of marble glossy material which is completely different when looking at them both.

This can also connect back to classics class since both buildings above were made to worship and for a place where people can come to look up to Christ. All the gods shown to worship in both of these churches remind me of all the different gods and goddesses that we have read about in classics.

-Raine, Team Jupiter


Skyscraper Influenced by Greek Architecture?

IMG_5655During my recent trip to Wall Street, I encountered a building that seems to be influenced by Greek architecture. The building is called the American Surety Building and located at 100 Broadway across from Trinity Church. Although it may not be completely influenced by Greek architectures, it still have features that resembles features that is used for the Greek architecture. For example, this building features multiple bases with columns. These columns is similar to Greek ionic columns because of how the column is shaped from bottom to top along with a capital to finish it off. Adding on as you look further up the building, it also features a architrave with a frieze. However, looking at the building from afar these features to a naked eye wouldn’t recognize it as something that has been influenced by Greek architectures. The reasoning for this is because the overall structure of the American Surety Building is not the same as Greek architectures. Thus explains why the building from far away doesn’t look like a Parthenon which a well known Greek architecture. Adding on like most buildings, the American Surety Building is made of concrete and stone. This is what makes it different to Greek architecture because it would be made up of multiple materials such as wood, marble, and baked clay. Nonetheless, the American Surety Building has features of Greek architectures that should be appreciated by people. Especially since it is located in a area that is very crowded during common hours.

Fasces and familiar faces


While on the Classics trip in lower Manhattan this past Friday, my group and I stopped to write about this statue situated at the entrance of the Alexander Hamilto U.S Custom House. The statues surrounding the building were meant to represent the seven different continents and the culture they each contain. I felt this image was relevant to both Art and Classics because it shares the Greco-Roman appearance of sculptures we studied previously, as well as the influence from different cultures we focused on in Classics. The two figures closely resemble Aphrodite and the Doryphoros based on the facial features and the draped clothing (or lack thereof). The signature archaic smile graces the faces of both figures and the realist proportions of their bodies give it a Greek Classical period feel. While ancient Greek statues were often made of bronze or marble, this piece seems to be made out of concrete, a more modern alternative. Additionally, the statue is used for aesthetic purposes and to show a connection between different periods of world history, rather than as a grave marker or symbol of wealth.

– Natalie, Team Vesta


The National Museum of American Indian is openly Greek/Roman influenced. The outside of the building has columns just like those shown in the Greek orders. Like the pro-styled temples in the ancient Greek world, it has a peripteral arrangement, which means there is a single line of columns arranged around the exterior of the building. These columns can be categorized as the Corinthian order. They are highly decorative and include bases at the bottom of each column. However, unlike the original Corinthian order, the capital of each column doesn’t have leaf like structures. Instead, it adorns carvings of one face with decorations surrounding it. The shaft itself doesn’t have the same design as the originals. Instead they have horizontal lines repeatedly going across the shaft. This is a hard turn from the Greeks’ order as they found straight lines harsh to look at. Columns were usually used in temples, but in the modern society columns can be used anywhere, including this museum.

-Fariah, Team Hermes

The Godess of Love and Beauty


Only a 10 minute walk away from my home is this statue of what I presume to be Aphrodite. I found this picture interesting because it was the first unit we did and Classics and discussed it in Art History as well. I believe this statue to be Aphrodite because it copies the iconic pose of other Aphrodite statues, the covering of her genitalia and breasts. This pose is called the Pudica pose which is very popular in western art. I believe this statue to be a copy of Aphrodite of Menophantos: 

Both Aphrodites are holding a cloth, perhaps to cover themselves with and their right leg is pointing outward, and the positions of her arms as well show movement. Unlike the source material this statue was much smaller and most likely not made from the same marble as the original Greek statues.

In Classics we thoroughly discussed Aphrodite and read Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, which describes how Aphrodite cheated on Hephaestus with the war god Ares.

Shakiba Ghaffar, Team Vesta