Aenas and other leaders

I interviewed: Brian T., Boylan Hall, Monday morning in class. He identifies himself as American and says that he was born in the USA and learned about its history and importance through schooling. He pointed out an important historical legend, Martin Luther King Jr,who stood up against racism. He explained that even if your’e able to make the slightest change in this world you should. Although racism still exists in this world Martin Luther’s legendary speech of i have a dream seems to have come somewhat true. Stores, restrooms are no longer divided by color. Because of him, things have changed which has altered history.

I interviewed: Gwen P., library, Monday morning in the bathroom. She identifies herself as Colombian, was born in the USA and learned about the history and importance of Colombia through her parents. She pointed out the first president of Colombia, Simon Bolivar who was instrumental in South America’s revolutions against the Spanish empire. She said that the “Republic of Bolivia” was created in honor of this leader. She said that because of Simon Bolivar, South America was united, free from Spanish control and this comes to show that because of important leaders like Simon Bolivar, many nations are united and freed from control of other nations.

I interviewed Steven W., cafeteria, Monday afternoon. He identifies himself as Chinese and was born in the USA. He learned about China through his parents and he said that someone who he learned about who is important to his “people” is Mao Zedong, a founder of the Chinese communist party. He was part of the Cultural Revolution and designed the Great Leap Forward which dramatically improved state production of agriculture and industry. Although his Cultural Revolution caused many deaths, it cleansed China from superstitions, religious dogma, and traditions that were outdated in a ‘modernist transformation’ that made his economic reforms possible.

What’s similar about these stories is that they all acknowledge one important leader in a country’s history. Aenas, like these leaders, is a warrior who will lead his people to safety. In Virgil’s Aenid, it says, “Aenas, however, trusting to the loyalty of the two nations who were day by day growing into one, led his forces into the field, instead of awaiting the enemy behind his walls”. Aenas is a Trojan leader who was loyal to his people, just like Martin Luther King, Simon Bolivar, and Mao Zedong.


  1. The first person I interviewed was Nancy in the library after we were done the homework. She did not mind me asking her some questions about his ethnicity and gave me permission to post her answers on this blog. She told me she is an American born Chinese. Because she always says Chinese at home, so she mainly identifies herself as Chinese. She has learned a lot of history about china from her mother. The most famous leader in china she knows is Mao Zedong. Mao is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history and is also known as a theorist, military strategist, poet and visionary. In china, Mao Zedong was deeply respected and loved by the Chinese people.


  1. The second person I interviewed was Caiying Wu, Friday evening after a class. She did not mind me asking her some questions about her ethnicity and gave me permission to post her answers on this blog. She identifies herself as Chinese. She was born in China, but she immigrated to the United States at her age of 13. Therefore, she learned a lot about Chinese history in china. She told me that Chinese culture is extensive and profound. Has more than 2000 years history. Qin Shihuang is his favorite historical figure. As the first emperor of China, he indeed has a profound influence on Chinese history and culture. Qin built the first Feudal Dynasty and became the first Feudal Lord. Also, he built the Great Wall that one of the Eight Wonders of the World.


  1. The third person I interviewed was Jason, Monday night via messenger. He did not mind me asking him some questions about his ethnicity and gave me permission to post her answers on this blog. He identifies himself as American. Even though he was born in china, but he does not has deeply understand about china history.


The similarities that I noticed between each interview and the stories we learned about Rome is they all remember the important leader in their culture. They both love their country and remember it. This is similar to Juno. She loves her city. “Juno loved it, they say, beyond all other lands in the world, even beloved Samos, second best. Here she kept her armor, here her chariot too, and Carthage would rule the nations of the earth if only the Fates were willing. This was Juno’s goal”( Vergil’s Aeneid).

Extra Credit

Extra Credit:

This picture relates to the class because we are currently learning about Augustus and Julius Caesar. The month on July is named after Julius and the month of August is named after Augustus. This is me holding a calendar opened up to the month of August. Augustus named this month after himself which shows that he is very powerful and respected by many.

Team Ares

Adam Allan

A Dictator for Rome in either Outcome

“Brutus, Cassius and the more than 60 other conspirators decided that they must act. They were a disparate group, but had preserved their secret for several months. On the morning of 15 March (a date known as the Ides) there was some dismay when Caesar did not arrive at the Senate on time… For a while the charade went on, but when Caesar stood to leave and tried to shake them off, the conspirators drew their knives… Caesar died of multiple stab wounds. There was a final irony about his death, for Caesar’s own Senate House had not been completed and the old curia still lay in ruins from its destruction by Clodius’s men. As a result, the Senate had assembled in a temple attached to Pompey’s theatre complex. When Caesar fell, his body lay at the foot of a statue of Pompey.”

This part of the book I chose quickly runs through the moments before and during the assassination of Julius Caesar. The author follows the events with a showing of the irony in Caesar’s death where he dies at the feet of a statue of Pompey his once sworn enemy.

The author includes this portion of Caesar’s end in only a small way because the main focus of the book is on the civil war that Julius Caesar felt he was forced and somewhat entitled to wage. The author passes over the events of the assassination to conclude with the events that lead afterward in the senate with the conspirators trying to regain order by justifying their actions to the rest of the senate and to the public who even in death felt a stronger loyalty towards Caesar then to the senate. The author at the end fet that Caesar’s death was what truly lead to the rise of Augustus and his achievements and thus Augustus was able to do what Caesar could not by gaining complete control of the state by acceptable means.

“Shouting out the words: “Run! bolt doors! bolt doors!” 3 Then all the rest, severally taking up the cry one from another, kept shouting these words, filled the city with lamentations, and burst into the workshops and houses to hide themselves, even though the assassins hurried just as they were to the Forum, urging them both by their gestures and their shouts not to be afraid.”

This account from our Cassius Dio homework shows another claim that the conspirators tried to quell the suspicion and anger towards themselves and their actions by stating there true intentions to the others in the senate and forum.

Goldsworthy, Adrian. Caesar’s Civil War 49-44 BC, Taylor and Francis, 2003. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from brooklyn-ebooks on 2017-12-01 20:21:02.

-Bedirhan Gonul, Team Aphrodite

Global Heroes

Hussain, Basement 11pm

Hussain is from Puerto Rico and Egypt. He doesn’t know too much of his countries’ past/history but he does know of the story of President Mubarak. He learned of this story through family conversations and watching television broadcasts. President Mubarak began governing Egypt in 1981. His rule began to crumble as police brutality arose. Online protests began and soon after, marches, civil disobedience, and demonstrations caused the spark of the 2011 revolution. Hussain, while watching all of this occur from America, learned that anything is possible when people come together with a common goal.

Aline, Basement 11pm

Aline is from Mexico. She has learned of her country’s history through family and school. One significant story she has learned is about the Mexican War of Independence. Spanish conquests in Mexico ended with bloodshed and territorial expansion. Mexican independence movements began soon after and war broke out in 1810. Many Mexican commanders sacrificed their lives to help Mexico achieve independence. Aline learned from this story that nothing in life is handed to you. She learned that she must work hard to get what she wants.

Elliot, Basement 11pm

Elliot is from Latvia. He learned of his country’s history through his family. A great story he learned of his country is the rise of Kristaps Porzingis. Surrounded by crime, his mother worked all day to put food on Porzingis’ table. Skinny and constantly fatigued due to anemia issues, Porzinigs’ path to NBA fame was not easy. Porzingis would constantly be underestimated by his Spanish league coaches. “He’s too skinny to have an impact” was a sentiment he heard throughout his basketball life. How could a fatigued skinny 7-footer be able to affect a game of basketball? Porzingis answered this question quickly. He proved himself to be able to lead an NBA franchise, the New York Knicks, and have a global impact. He is now the star of New York and has transformed the perception of Latvia. From a crime-ridden country to a now prospering nation, Porzingis has truly transformed Latvia. Press reports and media stepped foot into his hometown, Liepaja. He showed how his country truly is and has even been discussed in NATO discussions. Porzingis has shown Elliot that no matter where you come from, you can make it big. Elliot learned to not limit himself and to reach for the stars, the same way Porzingis did.


During Ceasar’s rise, he allied with Crassus and Pompey. In the Lives of Illustrious Men Excerpts, Pompey’s death is described in great detail. “The head was cut from the lifeless body; such an action had been unknown before this time. The rest of the body, thrown into the Nile and burned on a funeral pile by Servius Codrus, was buried in a tomb with this inscription: Here lies Pompey the Great.” This relates to the death of many Mexicans during the Mexican War of Revolution. Mexicans were slaughtered by the masses at the hands of the Spanish. Similarly, Egyptians were killed at the hands of the police during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. These stories all have similar themes of unity. With a common goal, many people join forces to achieve something considered impossible.

-Ahmed, Team Mars


Dark Time of the Ides of March

Book: What Shakespeare Teaches Us About Psychoanalysis: A Local Habitation and a Name

Quote: “Beware the Ides of March” (I.ii.23). “The soothsayer represents the priest of an earlier period, who protects the natural order. The Ides of March is not simply a date but represents something ancient that transcends the Julian calendar. Caesar first breaks the natural order when he dismisses the soothsayer, saying: “He is a dreamer. Let us leave him” (I.ii.24). Caesar is now dangerously breaking with the ancient system.”

Grunes, Dorothy T., and Jerome M. Grunes. What Shakespeare Teaches Us About Psychoanalysis : A Local Habitation and a Name, Karnac Books, 2014. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Created from brooklyn-ebooks on 2017-11-27 16:36:31.

Summary of quote: This quote reveals that the Ides of March is something to be prepared and aware of. The Ides of March represents something ancient that goes even beyond the Julian calendar. Julius Caesar breaks the natural order and ancient system. He was warned about the Ides of March by the soothsayer.

Authors Reference to Ides of March: The author uses the Ides of March to represent how important the death of Caesar was. The author expects the reader to know about Caesar’s death. The Ides of March was a dark day and time, when Caesar was killed. Since that time, the idea stuck that the Ides of March is unlucky or a portent of doom.

Quote from Cassius Dio: “When the right moment came, one of them approached him, as if to express his thanks for some favour or other, and pulled his toga from his shoulder, thus giving the signal that had been agreed upon by the conspirators. Thereupon they attacked him from many sides at once and wounded him to death, 5 so that by reason of their numbers Caesar was unable to say or do anything, but veiling his face, was slain with many wounds. This is the truest account, though some have added that to Brutus, when he struck him a powerful blow, he said: “Thou, too, my son?”

The quote compliments the ideas from the book because the quote explains how Caesar was killed. Caesar was attacked and killed by many conspirators and Brutus. The Ide of March will always be remembered for death of Julius Caesar.

Mohammed, team Vulcan


The Gates of Paradise, Roman Imagery, and A Synagogue: What These Three Things Have In Common Will Shock You!


This picture shows the doors to a synagogue on West End Avenue of Manhattan Beach. It immediately seemed to me like a much simpler version of the baptistery doors called the “Gates of Paradise,” by Ghiberti.


As you can see, the baptistery doors are decorated with scenes from the life of the Biblical figure Isaac, using linear perspective to add depth to the nearly-flat backgrounds cast in bronze.

The doors in my original picture, however, are much plainer and bear only three repeated images: a wolf, an axe with wheat and other grains, and a menorah. Considering their context, these likely represent objects of cultural significance. The wolf is often a symbol of Joseph (Isaac’s grandson), and the menorah is a religious artifact with hundreds of years of history attached. The axe and grains are a little more vague, but they could be standing in for the strength and beauty (respectively) of Israel and/or its inhabitants. There are no backgrounds portrayed at all, yet the overall effect is strikingly familiar to those acquainted with Ghiberti’s gates.

Both pictures show a set of dark doors embellished with a series of lighter metal images that have relevance to Biblical figures or scenes, organized into rows. Each set of decoration serves the basic purpose of making the doors more aesthetically pleasing, although one (Ghiberti’s) looks like it took much more time and effort because it is so much more intricate. Ghiberti’s doors are much taller and more imposing, whereas the synagogue’s doors are the usual height and just enhanced by the pictures. Also, it is unclear whether the first picture’s images are actually made of bronze, but it does not appear to be the same material as Ghiberti’s doors.

The pictures on my doors could easily apply to Roman culture too, although the context of their placement makes this extremely unlikely as its original purpose. The wolf has long been a symbol of Rome, because of the legend of the founders Remus and Romulus being raised by a she-wolf Lupa. When other powers rebelled against Rome (like the slave revolts Rome claimed were the “reconquering” of Sicily), a coin was made depicting a boar (the symbol of the Italic peninsula) trampling a wolf. The axe could be seen as referring to the axe of the fasces, a bundle of rods symbolizing imperial power, and the grain to the latifundia, a system of plantation farming that kept the Roman economy afloat. The menorah is a traditionally Jewish symbol, but the arch of Titus (pictured below) depicts a menorah because it shows the conquering of Jerusalem and the aftermath of the destruction of the second Temple (which stood on the hill that now holds the Dome of the Rock). Therefore even the menorah could in theory be a reminder of Roman triumphs.


The doors I took a picture of are similar to Ghiberti’s Gates of Paradise and reminiscent of Roman imagery and symbolism. Their purpose is a little more simplistic than the works of antiquity, but overall they are made for the same reason: to look nice.

-Chaya Ovits, team Venus

The Modern Day Struggles of Being Cupid

“Give Me Love” – Ed Sheeran (Music Video)

Screenshot_20171111-173758   Screenshot (74)


Red Line = Orthogonals.    Yellow line = Horizontal Line,    Green Dot = Vanishing Point

While listening to one of Ed Sheeran’s popular song, “Give Me Love,” I noticed that the song’s music video incorporates many elements from our Art and Classics course.

One incredible development during the Renaissance was Brunelleschi’s system of linear perspective. His formation of lines and diagonals enabled artists and architects to manipulate images into the illusion of reality. Space, shape, and size furthered Brunelleschi’s success of recreating life’s visual experiences into a still image. When looking from any individual’s eyes, our surroundings are examples of linear perspective itself.

In the screenshot above, there are qualities of linear perspective that can be identified with the understanding of how the objects and subjects of the video are seen. At a close observation, the overhead lights form orthogonal lines (red lines) of the image. The light beams move towards the middle of the photo, and direct the viewer’s eyes to the vanishing point (green dot) of the picture. The tunnel walls also acts as orthogonal lines. As the bricks of the walls move towards down the tunnel, the lines become more condensed, and create the illusion of space and depth. The light’s reflections and shadows also add a subtle sense of distance, because the light and shadows seem to merge together when approaching the vanishing point. The outline of the concrete ground also acts as an orthogonal line that points to the vanishing point. Though the horizon line (yellow line) is not obvious to the eye, it meets the middle of the image as the plane where it meets the viewer’s eye level. Touching back onto how the still image depicts distance, the figure in the foreground is proportionally smaller in scale due to the distance between the camera and the subject.

Screenshot_20171111-174127      Screenshot_20171111-173907

When directing your focus to the subject, the woman has a pair of cupid wings that is explored through the music video’s plot. The story unravels references to Aphrodite in which we have discussed in Classics class.

In the music video, the main subject is dressed with a pair of wings and holds a bow and arrow. The video’s plot reveals how she takes on the roll as a cupid and shoots others to fall in love with each other. The subject’s act as a cupid relates to Aphrodite’s abilities to cause people to fall in love due to her title of being the Goddess of Love and procreation. The video’s subject’s actions can be compared to the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite where William Blake Tyrrell translates that Aphrodite’s:

clothed in a dress more gleaming than bright fire. Like the moon, it shimmered around her soft breasts, a wonder to behold. She wore coiled bracelets and shining earrings, and beautiful necklaces were about her tender neck, beautiful, golden, glittering (86-90).

Aphrodite’s presence attracts and seduces those around her, and is reflected in Ed Sheeran’s song. In the homeric hymn, Aphrodite is known to be a elegant, lustful, beautiful, and graceful Goddess that is ineffable. Her powers become a strong influence over other people’s actions and emotions, which can overrule their thoughts and morals. The homeric hymn discusses the consequences of love, lies, and sex that Aphrodite is responsible for. However, most references to Aphrodite are usually the immaculate ideals of falling in love and being loved.

Similar to Ed Sheeran’s music video, the presence of the woman shows her duties as a cupid. She travels around the city and uses her power of love to counteract the dark and bleak night. Those alone begin to fall in love with the people around them, however, it juxtaposes the song’s lyrics. The cupid’s inner conflict and idea of love is enhanced by Sheeran’s song, and convey a more obvious result of love that the Homeric Hymn does not quite relate to modern love. Though the central theme of love is carried out by the woman with the white wings, her job as a cupid is not as fantastical as it seems. The subject of the video struggles with finding love herself, and has a inner conflict while she watches her actions help others fall in love. In the last scene of the video, it’s seen that she has stabbed herself with her cupid’s bow in attempt to make her fall in love. Ed Sheeran’s music video and the Homeric hymn portray a large difference in the society of today and the past. Sappho reveals the struggles of being in love, whereas, Ed Sheeran expresses the struggles of finding love.


Vicky Lee, Team Hermes



The Urge of Courageous Selflessness

The search term I used was Gracchi France and the article that I used was “The redemption of the Gracchi and the class nature of the republic.”

The primary intended audience seems to be those desiring to be informed of the intricacies of Gracchus Babeuf’s writing and how he attempted to defend himself from being disdained as someone attempting to overthrow the government. It heavily focuses on governmental social aspects that fixate on the middle class and its impact on revolution. Due to all this, it’s safe to assume that it’s certainly meant for an audience yearning to be informed rather than persuaded.

The words of “It is now no longer a question of making a revolution in men’s minds; this is not the area where we should anticipate further success. This aspect of the work has already been carried through successfully as all France knows.” directly tie not only the search terms Gracchi and France together since Gracchus’s intricate involvement is inexorable linked together, but also the concept of revolution which this writing focuses on.

The quote of “Furious opposition led to his murder. Ten years later his brother, C. Sempronius Gracchus suffered the same fate, when he attempted to bring in a wide-ranging series of reforms, embracing provincial administration, the corn supply, judicial reform, and the status of the Italian allies.” from the Roman Revolution connects to the peer reviewed that I selected as it relates to Gracchus fighting for his own beliefs and for revolution via reforms of varying types. This is a basic fact about Gracchus but it can’t be denies that his willingness and action to promote revolution are demonstrated here as well.

The MLA Citation is as follows

Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 1995, pp. 397–413.

Bailey Seemangal, Team 5, Hephaestus

The Evolution of Land Reform

The article I found is a review of Russell King’s “Land Reform: A World Survey” by Peter M. Enggass.

The proper MLA citation for this article is:

Enggass, Peter M. “Economic Geography.” Economic Geography, vol. 55, no. 4, 1979, pp. 357–358. JSTOR, JSTOR,

The intended audience of this article includes those who are interested in intricacies and ramifications of land reform and those who are looking to clarify what the phrases “land reform” and “agrarian reform” mean.

The author of this review (Peter M. Enggass) only briefly mentions and connects the two terms “Gracci” and “France” when he states, “The reader leaps from the Gracchi reforms of 121 BC to the French Revolution to John Stuart Mill in two pages.” The author of this review is trying to point out that the book “Land Reform: A World Survey” only briefly covers these terms in its chapter titled “Evolution of the Concept”, and thus, the chapter is a “misnomer”.

The “Gracchi reforms” mentioned in this publication refers to text from “The Civil Wars”, by Appian, about Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and his attempt to enforce the legislation in which aristocratic land was to be redistributed to the poor. It states, “But he added a provision to the former law, that the sons of the occupiers might each hold one-half of that amount, and that the remainder should be divided among the poor by three elected commissioners, who should be changed annually.”

This quote is relevant because it connects to the term “Gracchi reform” Peter Engglass refers to in his article. It describes that the “Gracchi reform” was the attempts of the Gracchus brothers to redistribute the surplus of aristocratic land to the poor.


-Isra, Team Minerva

Sicily Slave Rome Haiti

                 I searched up the term, Sicily Slave Rome Haiti, and many different kinds of informative articles came up. I found one article in particular called, “Reading Diodorus through Photius: The Case of the Sicilian Slave Revolts” , by Laura Pfutner. “The article discusses the ancient Greek historian Diodorus Siculus’s historical source material in the book “Bibliotheca” on the slave revolts in Roman Sicily, Italy during the 130s B.C. through referencing the Byzantine Patriarch of Constantinople Photius’s book  “Bibliotheca/Myriobiblos.” The primary audience for this publication, would be people who are interested in learning the history of slavery in this specific part of the world, during this time, either for educational purposes, or general knowledge, The author connects the search term Sicily Slave Rome Haiti, by having them present in the article, “Though Diodorus’ treatment of the Sicilian slave revolts forms the core of codex 244, it is difficult to discern from the other codices of the Myriobiblos whether Photius had a broader interest in Sicilian affairs.” Another quote, from one of the ancient texts, that seems relevant to this publication, is from “First Sicilian Slave Revolt , which states When the affairs of Sicily, after the overthrow of Carthage, had remained successful and prosperous for the space of sixty years, at length war with the slaves broke out for the following reasons. But their masters were very strict and severe with them, and took no care to provide either necessary food or clothing for them, so that most of them were forced to rob and steal, to get these necessities: so that all places were full of slaughters and murders, as if an army of thieves and robbers had been dispersed all over the island.” This quote provides further reason as to why the Sicilian slaves revolted, which was due to unhappy conditions, and being mistreated, which is also gone in depth, in the publication I originally found.

Works Cited

Pfuntner, Laura. “Reading Diodorus through Photius: The Case of the Sicilian Slave Revolts.” Greek, Roman & Byzantine Studies, vol. 55, no. 1, Mar. 2015, pp. 154-272. EBSCOhost,

Marisa B. -Team Ares

Fasces and familiar faces


While on the Classics trip in lower Manhattan this past Friday, my group and I stopped to write about this statue situated at the entrance of the Alexander Hamilto U.S Custom House. The statues surrounding the building were meant to represent the seven different continents and the culture they each contain. I felt this image was relevant to both Art and Classics because it shares the Greco-Roman appearance of sculptures we studied previously, as well as the influence from different cultures we focused on in Classics. The two figures closely resemble Aphrodite and the Doryphoros based on the facial features and the draped clothing (or lack thereof). The signature archaic smile graces the faces of both figures and the realist proportions of their bodies give it a Greek Classical period feel. While ancient Greek statues were often made of bronze or marble, this piece seems to be made out of concrete, a more modern alternative. Additionally, the statue is used for aesthetic purposes and to show a connection between different periods of world history, rather than as a grave marker or symbol of wealth.

– Natalie, Team Vesta

Team Hermes: Spartan and Aphrodite Research


Fariah Safa – Team Leader

Luisa Reynoso – Speaker

Vicky Lee – Recorder

Part 1:

Spartan Documentary

Our clip is 1:40- 2:00 from “Spartan Education – “300” (Fragment)

  1. This clip is similar to things we’ve discussed in class from the reading of Xenophon’s view on the Spartan Constitution. They are similar because they both speak of starving young boys and teaching them to fight in order to become stronger. In both this clip and the reading it mentions that “men punish a learner for not carrying out properly whatever he was taught to do” (Xenophon 2.8).
  2. We believe that someone would create this film in order to visualize the history that we’ve only read about. This clip brings an ancient society to life. 
  3. The target audience is anyone who is interested in Spartan society and their methods of education. 
  4. The value-laden language used is suspenseful. The narrator of this clip is building suspense by telling us the ways young men were treated in Sparta and what happens to them if they disobey. 
  5. The value-laden language tells us that the audience are most likely students or people who want to learn and so the creators use this value-laden language of suspense to capture the audiences attention and make this informative clip more interesting.
  6. The visuals of this clip are gruesome, graphic, and violent. These visuals can appeal to historians and anyone interesting in knowing what Sparta was really like. 
  7. The creators wanted their audience to be interested and shocked about how different Spartans raised their children in comparison to other ancient societies. 

Part 2:

Books on Aphrodite

  1. Acts of Love: Ancient Greek Poetry From Aphrodite’s GardenGeorge Economou; 2006; PA 4271.P3A24 2006; Vicky read Pg 3 – 13
  2. Helen of Troy : Goddess, Princess, WhoreBettany Hughes; 2005; BL820 .H45 H84 2005; Luisa read Pg 22 – 32
  3. Aphrodite: A Memoir of the Senses; Isabel Allende1998; PQ 8098.1.L54A6713 1998; Fariah read Pg 289 – 299
  4. Women and worship at Philippi : Diana/Artemis and Other Cults in the Early Christian Era; Valerie A. Abrahamsen; 1995; BL793 .P48 A27 1995
  5. The Laughter of Aphrodite: A Novel about Sappho of Lesbos; Peter Green; 1993; PR6057 .R348 L38 1993
  6. Athenian Myths and Institutions; Blake Tyrrell & Frieda S. Brown; 1991; BL793 .A76 T97 1991
  7. The Origin of the Gods; Richard Caldwell; 1981; BL 473.5.M66 1981
  8. Lost Goddesses of Early Greece; Charlene Spretnak; 1984; BL 782.S66 1984
  9. The Book of Goddesses and Heroines; Patricia Monaghan; 1989; BL 785.027 1989

Most relevant book:

Helen of Troy : Goddess, Princess, Whore


Sons of Anarchy


Charlie Hunnam goes by the name Jax Teller in Sons of Anarchy. He plays a very important role as the vice president, eventually becoming the president of his motorcycle club. Single father Jax Teller finds his loyalty to his outlaw motorcycle club tested by his growing unease concerning the group’s lawlessness. While the club protects and patrols the town of Charming, Calif., keeping danger away. However, the club earns their money through an illegal arms business.

A social issue is a problem that influences a considerable number of the individuals within a society. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual’s social issue is the source of a conflicting opinion on the grounds of what is perceived as a morally just personal life or societal order. There are many social issues in the show sons of anarchy, particularly kidnapping. Kidnap is to take (someone) away illegally by force, typically to obtain a ransom; kidnapping is one of the felonies that have a larger social impact in a population. Jaxs son Abel, was kidnapped by the Irish gangster and IRA traitor Jimmy O. Jimmy killed Abel’s adopted family and abducted Abel because he thought Jax killed Jimmy’s son. Eventually, Jax retrieves Abel and takes him to a safe place.

In the play, a woman named Medea has many social issues, they’re anger and violence. Her husband is leaving her and marrying King Creon’s daughter. She is in misery and doesn’t know what to do. Medea was furious, she decided to take action. Medea said “best the straight route in which I am most skilled — to take them off with poisons” line 385. This quote foreshadowed Jason’s two daughters and wife death. Medea left Jason alive to keep him in misery.

Although the social issues in Sons of Anarchy and Medea are different, they’re both social issues in everyday lives. Jax had to deal with Abel being kidnapped. However, he overcome the obstacles and obtained his son. Medea was in rage with anger because of her Jason leaving her. Her actions were incorrect and could have been a better solution.

Mohammed team Vulcan

Hell Hath No Fury

The scene is dark with an impeccable consciousness of regret hovering over you as you eat the third handful of buttery, salty popcorn. A few kernels spill over failing to make it to your mouth but your eyes are pasted onto the pail nonpareil actress holding a tendentious expression over the angry, frightened Reverend. The remnant taste of a cola you sipped four and a incessant seconds ago is still lingering off of your tongue and that’s when the phenomena occurs: scary salemWhy did I choose THIS net-flick?! Why does anyone choose a series to binge and who on earth in 2017 can relate to the Salem Witch Trials or a woman stuffing a rat down her husband’s throat?! Apparently a flock of WGN America’s Salem fans including myself.

Salem is a television show about the contras’ of freedom. We all have freedom to do whatever we please but the consequences are not so lithe or agreeable- often objectionable. Arguably, a young woman in love and separated from her true love by the religious tyranny of the Puritans, Left alone with a bastard child she enters the world of satanism to rid herself of child. She is later unable to alter her choices when her lover returns with burdens of his own. Torn between reviving Satan in hopes of creating a new world of peace and leaving her duties to be a mother and wife in an autonomous state.

Continue reading

Julius Caesar and the Modern Presidency

Assassination Scene

Shortly after the current president’s inauguration, Oscar Eustis directed a modern performance of Shakespeare’s “Julius Caesar”. Caesar bore a striking resemblance to the recently elected Donald Trump, from the hair to the too-long red tie. Understandably, many were outraged, some even asserted that this production bordered on treason, feeding of the hate that many people share for the president following his often controversial campaign.

However, Caesar has been portrayed as major political figures in many other reproductions, so to immediately discard Eustis’ interpretation as purely partisan would be short-minded and unfair. Caesar has been cast to represent figures from Mussolini to African dictators to Barack Obama. This play has a history of being used as a representation of a society’s current social and political climate. During World War 2 the assassination of “Mussolini” in a reproduction of Julius Caesar probably inspired a sense of pride and patriotism in those fighting against the Axis powers, as well as an equally negative reaction from fascist Italy. Depending on the interpretation and point of view a reenactment of Caesar can be seen as intensely patriotic, assassinating an undemocratic leader for example, or grossly inflammatory, like assassinating a legitimate president.

A parallel for this is seen in Antigone. Just as the senators in “Caesar”, Antigone and her sister are caught between doing what they think is right and what is law. Antigone gives funeral rights to her dead brother, disobeying Creon’s declaration and ultimately leading to her death. Creon’s actions against the gods cause him to lose his wife and children. Antigone, Creon, and the Roman conspirators in “Caesar”, despite their good intentions, all face the consequences of their actions. In both plays, the opinion of the people plays a major role. In “Caesar” Marc Antony’s speech turns the public against the conspirators; in “Antigone” Creon fears Thebes turning against him for displeasing the gods. Both plays in their original form as well as the many political interpretations of “Julius Caesar” stress the influence that public opinion can have on current events.

“Out of the Foam”



Aphrodite literally means “out of the foam”, and the sea shells are one of her symbol that tells the story of her birth. These are the seashells I picked up from the beach this summer and it perfectly shows how we can find Greek mythology, especially Aphrodite in our daily lives. The story of Aphrodite’s birth gives her the seashell symbol as she was said to be born from the foam of the sea. More specifically she was said to be born from the foam from Uranus’s genitals which was severed by his son Cronus and thrown into the sea, according to Hesiod in his Theogony, hence her role as goddess of love and fertility. When she was born “out of the foam”, the sweet East Wind carried her to the island of Cythera, where she arrived at the shore by floating on a scallop shell. Thus scallop shells became the symbol of her birth.

Because she rose from the sea at Cythera, Aphrodite is also referred to as the Lady of Cytheria.  In the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite translated by William Blake Tyrell, Aphrodite is addressed as “I will sing to Cyprian Cytheria, who gives kind gifts to mortals; on her lovely face, ever smiling, an alluring bloom shimmers. Hail, Goddess, ruling well-built Salamis and Cyprus in the sea: give me an alluring song” (Tyrell. B. William, 10 .1–5). The quote characterizes Aphrodite, as it addresses her as “Cytheria” and “Cyprus in the sea”, which refers to the story of her birth. It also characterized her as a sea goddess, as Aphrodite literally rose out of the sea, riding a scallop shell.


This is an image from the Greco-Roman fresco from Pompeii C1st A.D called “The Birth of Aphrodite“. The formal analysis of the painting is very straight forward. The subject of this piece is the myth related to Aphrodite’s birth as it shows the scallop shell by which she rode to the shore of Cytheria and is now being attended by other minor goddesses. It also depicts the goddess in nudity which was very controversial in ancient Greek as women were rarely shown so boldly. Also, we discussed in art class the Statue of Aphrodite in Knidos, which also shows her nudity, but does so more modestly, unlike this picture. As we discussed in art class, the scale of Aphrodite in relation to other objects, as well as her being placed in the center clearly identifies her as the main subject. The way the artist adorns her with pieces of jewelry, the cloak, and intricately woven hair as she luxuriously lies in her shell shows how the painter chose it carefully in a way that befits the goddess of beauty.

Masuma, Team Mercury

#CLAS1, #Aphrodite, #SeeninNYC, #artandclassics,

The Agony of Complacency and the Despair of Resignation

Amidst the horrifying complacency of our daily lives, resignation to one’s supposed ‘fate’ has become a disturbing norm. Whether or not fate exists though, it’s true that many live life while blindly following hypothetical outlines and miserably prideful constraints. In fact, the depths of our history contain those that met with grim fates due to the complacency they found meager shelter in. A modern example of retelling a tale that consists of falling victim to self-satisfaction is Seneca’s “Oedipus” by the Theater of the Blind. The review by one Honor Moore intricately describes the perfectly construed agony of the modernized play. This in turn makes the events of the play relevant and sympathetic to the contemporary audience. For one, Moore states that “there is no wisdom except through resignation to one’s fate, becomes true not only for a blind king in ancient Thebes, but for each of us, in our blindnesses, as well.” This statement is certainly true to many who blindly accept veiled truths without question and live within a shell. Fate is quite a beloved concept as it states that we have a path we’re ‘meant’ to follow in life. Those of ancient times embraced this and many in modern times embrace this as well. After all, isn’t it better to be blind to the harsh truth rather than to accept said harsh truth? Life is difficult and without certain guidelines, one can get lost. Those in ancient Athens accepted the harshness of their degradingly strict society just so that they would be satisfied with having a set path in life. In comparison, those in modern times do this as well. Whether you have strict parents that regulate you or illusions that prevent you from pursuing your true dreams, many blindly accept and follow the paved road in front of them instead of building their own. In a way, it’s sort of heartrending. We haven’t changed at all. There are those that stay blind or become blind and resign themselves to ‘fate’, just as Oedipus did.

Additionally, Moore also states that “just five actors play all the characters and double as the chorus, the production gathers intimacy as we come to know the performers as human beings who both witness and endure the play’s tragic events.” The importance of this quote is how it correlates the usage of ‘masks’ by people in present and ancient day. Yes, while the modern actors themselves had masks to play several parts just as the ancient actors did, it’s also true that the characters themselves have certain ‘masks’ they wear in order to portray different aspects of themselves to the appropriate people. Oedipus for example, wears the mask of a ruler and the mask of a husband. Everyone in real life does this as well. Depending on who you interact with, you act a certain way. It’s a simple yet true fact of life. However, with time those masks can break. Those masks can shatter and your core can be bare to the world. Those in contemporary society wear masks and all of those masks can very well break. It can either be due to trauma or despairing resignation but it’s still very possible in a variety of several other events. When the actors switched roles and masks on stage, they themselves were experiencing the tragedy they were unfolding along with the character’s breaking masks. Seeing Oedipus accept his literal and metaphorical blindness at the end of the play can easily connect to the audience as it shows that beneath all the masks that someone has, there is a core that contains all of your vulnerabilities and truths. This is as true for me as it is for you.

We can never truly know how the Ancient Athenian audience felt about anything they wanted to keep secret. The masks they unconsciously wore and the blindness they embraced might’ve been things that they never fought or thought about. Though we can infer since these convoluted plays existed back then. Women definitely must’ve had dilemmas with the masks they had to bare to the world. They were homemakers and weren’t intricately involved with many outside of the house. They were also consistently ignored and treated as convenience tools for the upkeep of home. There were most definitely times when women questioned their blind devotion to the man-made laws they had to abide to. After all, agonizing blindness to one’s self can make you question the state of things and cracking masks can easily break from repressed rage. It doesn’t matter if it was ancient times or not, feelings still existed and it would’ve caused women especially to have outward and internal conflicts about their place in life. They were more suppressed than men were. Were they just going to live life on a moving road that they themselves didn’t even construct? Living the way they wanted to was a pipe dream however, as illusions to resignation were as common then as they are now. There must’ve also been men who didn’t want to participate in war. Not everyone has the same ideals and hopes. While war was a relatively constant reality, there had to have been other aspects of life that they enjoyed. Some may have enjoyed those other aspects more than war. Despite all of the tragic acceptance and selfish toleration that those in Ancient Athens felt though, we can certainly infer that since they’re human, they had to have faced identity and role crises just as we do today.

Moore, Honor. “The Oedpial Anguish Illuminates the Darkness.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 June 2005,

Bailey Seemangal, Team 5 Hephaestus


Cameron, Team Jupiter


This is an image of me [Cece] in my bedroom. While I was reading the final play for class on Friday, I could not help but think about some really good Greek food like Souvlaki.  While food was on my mind, I also remembered an old saying about the a olive branch but I did have any symbol like that to take a selfie with nor did I remember the saying. While shuffling through my jewelry box, I realized I a oak tree accessory for my choker I always wear.  The oak tree is a symbol in Greek Mythology usually representing several powerful gods such as “Zeus, God of Thunder,  or a symbol of physical strength and morale” (nickthegreek, After taking a picture, I thought how does this relate to our lessons after only ONE DAY in class?! It hit me- Medea of Euripides’ Medea held strong to her own moral compass. In her mind, the death of her own kin was validated because of her ex husband’s betrayal. Despite the several pleas of the Chorus, Medea replies  to being told she would regret her decision with “never mind all other words are in vein” (Lushnig, 818). This shows how her stubbornness and strength, much like the Oak Tree, lead her to the sacrifice of her own children. Even before going on with her plan to poison  her children, the King and Jason’s new wife, she grieved knowing what she had done as wrong. It was more upsetting for her to be betrayed and replaced than to leave in exhile. The act of committing such sacrifice  is unbearable however I must admit takes the strength of hundreds of Oak Trees.20170831_195458.jpg