1. MLA Citation: Enggass, Peter M., and Russell King. “Land Reform: A World Survey.” Economic Geography, vol. 55, no. 4, Oct. 1979, p. 357., doi:10.2307/143169.
  2. The intended audience of this Journal article are scholars, students, or anyone who read or is planning on reading Land Reform:A World Survey. As this is a review and summary of the 357 page book, those who are planning on picking up the book will find this article very useful.
  3. The author does connect the two points, however he does not build a strong connection.  The two search terms are only connected when Enggass is discussing the second chapter of the book titled “The Evolution Of The Concept” Eggass believes the title of the chapter is misleading as he mentions, “The title of the second chapter, “Evolution of the Concept” is somewhat of a misnomer…

    ages. The reader leaps from the Gracchi reforms of 121 BC to the French Revolution to John Stuart Mill in two pages.” The use of the two terms shows the impact of each event on land reform.

  4. My chosen article is about land reform and my two search terms are Gracchi and France. Gracchi or the Gracchus brothers were 2nd century Roman tribunes who attempted to pass land reform acts, these two are actually mentioned in several parts of the readings for homework, a moment which connects the two readings together is “Having thus comprehended all this in a law, they took an oath over and above the law, and fixed penalties for violating it, and it was supposed that the remaining land would soon be divided among the poor in small parcels.” This quote ties the readings together by explaining land reforms and the attempts of the Gracchus brothers to pass them.


Oliver, Team Hestia,

The Urge of Courageous Selflessness

The search term I used was Gracchi France and the article that I used was “The redemption of the Gracchi and the class nature of the republic.”

The primary intended audience seems to be those desiring to be informed of the intricacies of Gracchus Babeuf’s writing and how he attempted to defend himself from being disdained as someone attempting to overthrow the government. It heavily focuses on governmental social aspects that fixate on the middle class and its impact on revolution. Due to all this, it’s safe to assume that it’s certainly meant for an audience yearning to be informed rather than persuaded.

The words of “It is now no longer a question of making a revolution in men’s minds; this is not the area where we should anticipate further success. This aspect of the work has already been carried through successfully as all France knows.” directly tie not only the search terms Gracchi and France together since Gracchus’s intricate involvement is inexorable linked together, but also the concept of revolution which this writing focuses on.

The quote of “Furious opposition led to his murder. Ten years later his brother, C. Sempronius Gracchus suffered the same fate, when he attempted to bring in a wide-ranging series of reforms, embracing provincial administration, the corn supply, judicial reform, and the status of the Italian allies.” from the Roman Revolution connects to the peer reviewed that I selected as it relates to Gracchus fighting for his own beliefs and for revolution via reforms of varying types. This is a basic fact about Gracchus but it can’t be denies that his willingness and action to promote revolution are demonstrated here as well.

The MLA Citation is as follows

Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 1995, pp. 397–413.

Bailey Seemangal, Team 5, Hephaestus

What We Learn When We Go To The Grave


      In the article “The Grave” (1825) the author who is unidentified targets he/she’s  primary audience as scholars who are adverse or knowledgeable of the Doctrine of Modern Universalism , additionally any history experts looking for a controversial piece on certain greek figures. The author amalgamates the terms “Gracchi” and “France” to show the change in Europe’ leaders  from the greek era to the Napoleonic era, Napoleon being used as the representation of France. These names are used to represent the great figures who impacted the ancient world . This is seen when the author says “ Fair names too have been strung upon a list… creatures who were once the grace and beauty of the Earth…Antigone and Sappho- Corinna and the mother of Gracchi -Porchia and Agripine … And the story might be ended with him who died an exile on his sea surrounded rock,the first Emperor of France, the king and conqueror of Italy, the Corsican soldier, Napoleon.” In other words the author is listing icons of ancient Europe , the terms are connected because Gracchi ‘ mother and  Napoleon who is from France are considered part of these iconic figures. This is related to the ancient text assigned reading due to the understanding that both illuminate some important individuals or concepts in ancient Europe. For example in the Roman constitution it is stated that “One might say that nearly all authors have handed down to us the reputation for excellence enjoyed by the Constitutions” . This means that they believed that there are figures who have lived before that significantly affected the way they live in their present being, which is a paraphrased version of what “The Grave” was informing us about.


Samantha, Team Minerva


THE GRAVE. (1825). The UniversalDoctrine of Modern Universalismist, Consisting of Essays, Lectures, Extracts and Miscellaneous Pieces; Tending to Explain and Defend the Doctrine of Modern Universalism (1825-1826), 1(9), 144.






The author wrote this article for people who are interested in the Gracchi in general because his article is about contrasting the differences between Babeuf’s case. In different translations of the case, Babeuf is portrayed in a different light. The purpose of the article is to compare and contrast the two translations. The author connects the search terms to one another by talking about Marcuse’s publications in regards to Babeuf. The terms Gracchi and France are related in the article because Marcuse’s publication occurred during a time with multiple revolts in France against a corrupt leader. The author shows this relation many times throughout the article. For example, in the article, the author writes, “Marcuse recreated the thought of Babeuf in the image of Marcuse’s own Kantian abstractions and yet, revealingly, disparaged it all as primitive.” The author explains that Babeuf’s rebellion against the French leader was considered to be savage because of the way it was conducted. Babeuf’s trial showcased in a negative light because it was probably translated by someone who is against him. This shows the relation between the two search terms because the revolt occurred in France against the Gracchi, who was the leader at the time. Another example is that in the article, the author states, “Babeuf is forced to argue on a more philosophical plane than was his habit, obeying certain rules of legalistic form, but in so doing he concedes nothing to bourgeois ideology, he does not resort to a game of sterile abstractions.” Babeuf is shown as a philosophical man in contrast to what was just said about him in the other translation. He is seen as a wise man in contrast to a primitive savage. This shows the relation between the search terms because of his rebellion against the person in power. In actuality, the Gracchi is a powerhouse duo of Roman brothers that were in charge. However, Gracchi is used as a reference to those brothers in the article to show the power of the leader in France. From the readings, the excerpt states, “What then are the beginnings I speak of and what is the first origin of political societies?” (Readings for CLAS 1110 on the Roman Republic, page 5) this quote is relevant to the article because it questions the political system. Similarly to Babeuf, the excerpt challenges the way the way the society has been run by politics. Despite whether Babeuf is considered to be savage or wise, he was against the way France was ruled, and he revolted against the leader.

Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 25.3 (1995): 397-413. Web.IMG_0255

– Rebecca Lee, Team Jupiter

Your Republic, My Republic


The intended audience for this article are people who have a combined interest in both politics and history because it speaks about the founding of the roman republic and how the term “republic” evolved into what we know it as today. Its target audience may also be modern day republicans who are interested in the history of the label of their party.

The article does not connect the search terms “France” and “Gracchi” but rather briefly mentions the economic policy of the Gracchi and later on heavily discusses the different types of republics in European history. It states that the Gracchi “sought to redistribute land to the lower classes, territorial accumulation as a form of agrarian policy became linked to the populist threat to the rule of an Optimatedominated senatorial republic: in a word, tyranny.” (Kennedy 2). The goal of the Gracchi was to give land to lower classes and seize control over the senatorial republic. The article later discusses the various differences in economic policies of European nations and how the policies molded the term “republic” into what we understand it as today. The article states that “French mercantilism was clearly embedded within the political theory of absolutism and the social relations of French feudalism. As a consequence of these social, political and economic differences, a classical republicanism of virtue persisted in France right up to the Revolution France’s commercial empires in the Americas or, further back, with Rome’s military-political empire” (Kennedy 329). In other words, Frances economic attitude affected their political stances as well, and vice versa.

“When owing to floods, famines, failure of crops or other such causes there occurs
such a destruction of the human race as tradition tells us has more than once happened, and as we must believe will often happen again…it is a necessary consequence that the man who excels in bodily strength and in courage will lead and rule over the rest.” (Polybius 5). Just like Frances economic policy had a lot to do with it’s politics, polybeos’ theory describes what he deems to be a natural occurrence to the political status of a group of people who’s economic status changes (due to natural disasters). Both writings support the idea that a nation’s economic status weighs heavily on its political status.

Gabriella, Team Hestia

MLA citation:

Kennedy, Geoff. “The ‘Republican Dilemma’ and the Changing Social Context of Republicanism in the Early Modern Period.” European Journal of Political Theory, SAGE Journals, 11 June 2009,


“Keep the public rich and the private poor”

After refining my search of “Gracchi France” multiple times, I finally settled on the article “‘Keep the Citizens Poor’: Machiavelli’s Prescription for Republican Poverty” by Julie L. Rose. This article focuses on Machiavelli’s argument for why we should “keep the public rich and their citizens poor”; instead of agreeing with the common interpretation of this which believes citizens must live in a certain state of “material austerity”, Rose argues that a better interpretation “requires only that citizens maintain certain attitudes towards poverty and wealth” (734). Although my search was of Gracchi, the brothers were only mentioned once in reference to Machiavelli’s discussion of the Gracchi and the Agrarian law in Discourses I. 37; however, the article repeatedly argues points that are in alignment with the views of the Gracchi brothers. Machiavelli discusses that in order to have a successful government the citizens must not become too extravagant in their material possessions. “He expresses a similar sentiment in another passage, as he contrasts the corruption of Italy, France and Spain with the ‘goodness’ of Germany.” (Rose 737). The German Free Cities are discussed in length as they offer a great model for “their virtuous and free ways of life” (Rose 736).

In order to have political success, we must also take economic matters into account. Machiavelli believed the people of Rome to have been one of the best models for the “keeping citizens poor” lifestyle; they didn’t over indulge in material items. Similar to Polybius’ argument, “they gave way to their appetites owing to this superabundance, and came to think that the rulers must be distinguished from their subjects by a peculiar dress, that there should be a peculiar luxury and variety in the dressing and serving of their viands, and that they should meet with no denial in the pursuit of their amours, however lawless. 8 These habits having given rise in the one case to envy and offense and in the other to an outburst of hatred and passionate resentment, the kingship changed into a tyranny; the first steps towards its overthrow were taken by the subjects, and conspiracies began to be formed” (6), growing too lavish disrupts a perfect government. Rose’s article is geared towards any person who is a part of the public and can change the ways in which we live, especially voting citizens. It offered me a new point of view as well as being a very interesting read. It is important to think of all the things that go into leading a perfect society; it’s not just the leader and form of government that is implemented which affect it. Considering our currently consumer driven lives, altering our views towards poverty may be very beneficial in order to continue to flourish. The lavish lifestyle is not sustainable; if we hope to be able to say “Long Live the Republic”, we need to live more as the prosperous Roman Republic once did.

Works Cited

Rose, Julie L. “‘Keep the Citizens Poor’: Machiavelli’s Prescription for Republican Poverty.” Political Studies, vol. 64, no. 3, 1 Oct. 2016, pp. 734–747. OneSearch, doi:10.1111/1467-9248.12204.

-Sheila Kelly, Team Saturn

A French Gracci

I read “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic” by Al Alp, which I found through the search terms “Gracci France.” The author, Alp, mainly compared and contrasted an essay written by Herbert Marcuse about Gracchus Babeuf, and Babeuf’s words himself, so I think the article is primarily intended to be read by scholars of history, or people who already have prior knowledge of the time period and who Barbeuf was. My search terms, Gracci and France, go hand and hand in this article. Gracci is another name for Gracchus Babeuf, and the article focuses on his supposed attempt to overthrow the French government. The author talks a lot about Marcuse’s point of view using those two search terms (like how for Marcuse, “the Great French Revolution was to be devoid of working class struggle and only preparatory to a bourgeois stage of history,” which he belives is Barbeuf’s fault).

In our Roman readings we read fragments from Polybius, where he talked about how the world had changed government-wise, and how a monarchy in present day Greece (which would be around 168 BCE) was much different than a monarchy in Ancient Greece. In Alp’s article, he discussed how Marcuse showed “a remarkable ignorance of history. The mass media of XVIII century France was quite different from that of the late XIX century. Advertising in Babeuf’s day was inexistent,” which is why Barbeuf couldn’t have been a propagandist on the level Marcuse accuses him to be. In Polybius’ text, he writes that there is a “cycle of political revolution, the course appointed by nature in which constitutions change, disappear, and finally return to the point from which they started.” Both Alp and Polybius stress the importance of the time period in which something happens, for it all amounts to generational differences.

Proper MLA citation: Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 1995, pp. 397–413.

Camille, Team Diana