Gracchi France

Search Term:

Gracchi France


MLA Citation:

Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 1995, pp. 397–413.

Primary Intended Audience:

I believe the intended audience is anyone who would like to know more about the essay that discusses the redemption of the Gracchi and the nature of the Republic. This could range from historians to those generally interested in the leader of the peasant revolts in France.

Search Term Connection:

The author makes the connection between his work and Gracchus Babeuf by clearly establishing distinctions throughout the journal that refer to Marcuse’s essay, as well as Babeuf’s actions. An example of this includes ” Marcuse tries to turn Babeuf’s sober realism into messianic voluntarism. He depicts Babeuf as creating a tiny conspiracy with support neither in the left vanguard nor amongst the broad masses (TD, 100). In fact, Marcuse was only echoing the reactionary ideas of the prosecution.” What this quote shows is the relationship between Marcuse, as the author and Babeuf as a revolt leader.

Assigned Reading & Journal Similarity: 

One quote that struck me as relevant/similar to the journal i read, was “Gracchus in his speeches to the people urged them to overthrow the aristocracy and establish a democratic government; and after winning the favour of all classes, he had them not only as supporters, but even as instigators of his bold objectives.” Not only does this directly show the heroic ways of Gracchi but it also relates to how he lead the revolts.


Mariana, Team Athena

French Revolution

  1. Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 03 Jan. 1995, pp. 397-413. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/00472339580000221.
  2. The primary audience of this article is mainly for people who are interested in revolution and about the different type of societies we live in.
  3. The search terms “Gracchi France” are connected in the article by talking about how the Roman Republic in the past influence “Gracchus” Babeuf into the political agitator he was during the French Revolution. “As stated in the text, “Babeuf had many ways of expressing the necessity of the proletarian dictatorship: he did this as a leading activist in the mass movements of revolutionary France and as a propagandist, he did this also in his revolutionary Defense before the High Court of Vendome.”  
  4. A quote relevant to this article is “By taking control of the courts away from the senators and setting up the equities as judges, Gracchus gave the lower classes power over the nobles, and by breaking the harmony that existed previously between the senate and the equities, he made the populace a serious rival to both those classes” (Tiberius Gracchus 25). This is relevant because this was what Babeuf wanted, to overthrow the government and give power to the poor in France during the french revolution period. 
  5. – Hoky Tran, Team Saturn

Gracias Gracchi

It was during the 18th century France that he came to be, the leader of the peasants revolt, Gracchi Babeuf. Although it has been many years since his death his words and actions carry on through his ideas. In the article I chose to read a writer was examining an essay written about Gracchi Babeuf during the time he was on trial. Based on Babeuf’s circumstance, I would say that this article was written with the lower class in mind because the article mainly focuses on how Gracchi was accused of going against the Constitution of 1793 and how when he went in front of the High Court of Vendome his defense was not made like in silence like his partner but in logic. He had a revolutionary idea he thought would benefit the people and to see through he relied on the support of the peasants but was sentenced to death. The tone of the article seems to be supporting or in favor of having a superior argument to overthrow the government. The quote, “Babeuf pretends to be no more than an idealist dreamer, yet the inner nature of his speech is based on class conflicts and the practicalities of revolutionary organization,” I believe connects the two search terms “Gracchi” and “France” because during this time period France was going through changes that might have been the result of Gracchi’s attempt at a revolution.  The assigned reading relates to this topic because Babeuf was referred to as a “revolutionary communist” which if he had succeeded would have decreased the class barrier between the peasants and the rich. Which is what the Plebeians of Rome achieved, “with a series of legislation between 367 and c.287, plebeians gained access to the higher magistracies, entrance into the major priestly colleges, and finally their plebiscites became equivalent to laws”.

Sherique, Team Artemisgracchi

MLA : Alp, Al. “The redemption of the Gracchi and the class nature of the republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia; Vol. 25 Issues 3, p 397-413, 17 p (1995). Web. 28 Nov. 2017.

What We Learn When We Go To The Grave


      In the article “The Grave” (1825) the author who is unidentified targets he/she’s  primary audience as scholars who are adverse or knowledgeable of the Doctrine of Modern Universalism , additionally any history experts looking for a controversial piece on certain greek figures. The author amalgamates the terms “Gracchi” and “France” to show the change in Europe’ leaders  from the greek era to the Napoleonic era, Napoleon being used as the representation of France. These names are used to represent the great figures who impacted the ancient world . This is seen when the author says “ Fair names too have been strung upon a list… creatures who were once the grace and beauty of the Earth…Antigone and Sappho- Corinna and the mother of Gracchi -Porchia and Agripine … And the story might be ended with him who died an exile on his sea surrounded rock,the first Emperor of France, the king and conqueror of Italy, the Corsican soldier, Napoleon.” In other words the author is listing icons of ancient Europe , the terms are connected because Gracchi ‘ mother and  Napoleon who is from France are considered part of these iconic figures. This is related to the ancient text assigned reading due to the understanding that both illuminate some important individuals or concepts in ancient Europe. For example in the Roman constitution it is stated that “One might say that nearly all authors have handed down to us the reputation for excellence enjoyed by the Constitutions” . This means that they believed that there are figures who have lived before that significantly affected the way they live in their present being, which is a paraphrased version of what “The Grave” was informing us about.


Samantha, Team Minerva


THE GRAVE. (1825). The UniversalDoctrine of Modern Universalismist, Consisting of Essays, Lectures, Extracts and Miscellaneous Pieces; Tending to Explain and Defend the Doctrine of Modern Universalism (1825-1826), 1(9), 144.





The Evolution of Land Reform

The article I found is a review of Russell King’s “Land Reform: A World Survey” by Peter M. Enggass.

The proper MLA citation for this article is:

Enggass, Peter M. “Economic Geography.” Economic Geography, vol. 55, no. 4, 1979, pp. 357–358. JSTOR, JSTOR,

The intended audience of this article includes those who are interested in intricacies and ramifications of land reform and those who are looking to clarify what the phrases “land reform” and “agrarian reform” mean.

The author of this review (Peter M. Enggass) only briefly mentions and connects the two terms “Gracci” and “France” when he states, “The reader leaps from the Gracchi reforms of 121 BC to the French Revolution to John Stuart Mill in two pages.” The author of this review is trying to point out that the book “Land Reform: A World Survey” only briefly covers these terms in its chapter titled “Evolution of the Concept”, and thus, the chapter is a “misnomer”.

The “Gracchi reforms” mentioned in this publication refers to text from “The Civil Wars”, by Appian, about Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus and his attempt to enforce the legislation in which aristocratic land was to be redistributed to the poor. It states, “But he added a provision to the former law, that the sons of the occupiers might each hold one-half of that amount, and that the remainder should be divided among the poor by three elected commissioners, who should be changed annually.”

This quote is relevant because it connects to the term “Gracchi reform” Peter Engglass refers to in his article. It describes that the “Gracchi reform” was the attempts of the Gracchus brothers to redistribute the surplus of aristocratic land to the poor.


-Isra, Team Minerva