Reform

  1. MLA Citation: Enggass, Peter M., and Russell King. “Land Reform: A World Survey.” Economic Geography, vol. 55, no. 4, Oct. 1979, p. 357., doi:10.2307/143169.
  2. The intended audience of this Journal article are scholars, students, or anyone who read or is planning on reading Land Reform:A World Survey. As this is a review and summary of the 357 page book, those who are planning on picking up the book will find this article very useful.
  3. The author does connect the two points, however he does not build a strong connection.  The two search terms are only connected when Enggass is discussing the second chapter of the book titled “The Evolution Of The Concept” Eggass believes the title of the chapter is misleading as he mentions, “The title of the second chapter, “Evolution of the Concept” is somewhat of a misnomer…

    ages. The reader leaps from the Gracchi reforms of 121 BC to the French Revolution to John Stuart Mill in two pages.” The use of the two terms shows the impact of each event on land reform.

  4. My chosen article is about land reform and my two search terms are Gracchi and France. Gracchi or the Gracchus brothers were 2nd century Roman tribunes who attempted to pass land reform acts, these two are actually mentioned in several parts of the readings for homework, a moment which connects the two readings together is “Having thus comprehended all this in a law, they took an oath over and above the law, and fixed penalties for violating it, and it was supposed that the remaining land would soon be divided among the poor in small parcels.” This quote ties the readings together by explaining land reforms and the attempts of the Gracchus brothers to pass them.

 

Oliver, Team Hestia,

The Power of Land Reform

Enggass, Peter M. “Economic Geography.” Economic Geography, vol. 55, no. 4, 1979, pp. 357–358. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/143169

This article, written by Peter Enggass, discusses the book Land Reform: A World Survey, by Russell King. This article discusses the themes and overall discussions in King’s book. Enggass explains that within his book, King gives a general overview of what land reform is.  And in addition he explains how King’s intended readers are people who want to have a better and deeper understanding of land reform and what difficulties that agrarians faced. In his book King states,“The historical evolution of land reform, from classical Greece and Rome [including the] Gracchi reforms of 121 BC”. He also states that “Africa consists of a chapter devoted to Kenya and one to the poverty and inequality because systems of land tenure to be regarded as the primary obstacle to economic development”.  And like stated in the reading “Gracchus in his speeches to the people urged them to overthrow the aristocracy and establish a democratic government; and after winning the favour of all classes, he had them not only as supporters, but even as instigators of his bold objectives”. This meaning that Gracchus would use his words to convince the people to follow his rule and with the help of land reform he would break the harmony that existed previously between the senate and the equites, and make the populace a serious rival to both these classes.

~Ashley G., Team Juno

The Urge of Courageous Selflessness

The search term I used was Gracchi France and the article that I used was “The redemption of the Gracchi and the class nature of the republic.”

The primary intended audience seems to be those desiring to be informed of the intricacies of Gracchus Babeuf’s writing and how he attempted to defend himself from being disdained as someone attempting to overthrow the government. It heavily focuses on governmental social aspects that fixate on the middle class and its impact on revolution. Due to all this, it’s safe to assume that it’s certainly meant for an audience yearning to be informed rather than persuaded.

The words of “It is now no longer a question of making a revolution in men’s minds; this is not the area where we should anticipate further success. This aspect of the work has already been carried through successfully as all France knows.” directly tie not only the search terms Gracchi and France together since Gracchus’s intricate involvement is inexorable linked together, but also the concept of revolution which this writing focuses on.

The quote of “Furious opposition led to his murder. Ten years later his brother, C. Sempronius Gracchus suffered the same fate, when he attempted to bring in a wide-ranging series of reforms, embracing provincial administration, the corn supply, judicial reform, and the status of the Italian allies.” from the Roman Revolution connects to the peer reviewed that I selected as it relates to Gracchus fighting for his own beliefs and for revolution via reforms of varying types. This is a basic fact about Gracchus but it can’t be denies that his willingness and action to promote revolution are demonstrated here as well.

The MLA Citation is as follows

Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 1995, pp. 397–413.

Bailey Seemangal, Team 5, Hephaestus

Present Generation Government And Its Effect On African Land Reform.

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For my blog this week, I researched the term: Gracchi “Land Reform” Africa and came across an article titled “South Africa’s Land Reform Crisis: Eliminating the Legacy of Apartheid.” Written and published by Bernadette Atuahene, the article brings light to the issues post-apartheid South Africa has had on the topic of land reform.

When apartheid ended, the new regime in South Africa promised to redistribute land that whites had stolen from blacks. Yet nearly two decades later, it has largely failed to do so—and the patience of the dispossessed is running out. According to the article in regards to “Section 25 of the new African constitution, promulgated in 1994, existing property owners (who were primarily white) would receive valid legal title to property acquired under prior regimes, despite the potentially dubious circumstances of its acquisition. In exchange, blacks (in South Africa, considered to include people of mixed racial descent and Indians) were Promised Land reform. “ (P121) “However the new government upheld only one side of the liberation bargain: South African whites kept their property, but blacks still have not received theirs. Political apartheid may have ended, but economic apartheid lives on.” (P122)

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Select a quote from the ancient texts that is relevant to your selected publication.

Similarly, Gracchi’s ideas of land reform, and solving tensions between the Romans and the slaves also lead to blood boiling tensions. According to the text, the land reforms of Gracchi meant that the rich Romans “collected in groups, and made lamentation, and accused the poor of appropriating the results of their tillage, their vineyards, and their dwellings… and were angry that they should be robbed of their share of the common property. “The unfair land distribution by the South African government and its natives connects to the Roman’s opinions on land reform in Appian. The Roman public argued that they had the earned the rights to their land from military services, ancestors, or loans just as South Africans argued that “they are the natives of their land, and that land must be returned to blacks in South Africa, no matter what the consequences are for the current owners and for political stability in the country” (P122).

The author highlights how the social status and economic status of many citizens have influenced what land is divided and what land is not. The rich and more fortunate of the Romans controlled and had a great majority of the land in ancient times: as is the case in South Africa with the wealthy 10% wealthy whites and the large population of natives (black, colored and Indian) thus the idea of who had the original rights to the land is presented in both times.

Who is the primary intended audience of the publication?

Originally published in a Foreign Affairs Magazine, the article seems to be directed towards a younger generation. One that is proactive and ready to make change. Constantly throughout the article, I see the author reference the economic divide as a result to the corruption the government has in this generation. I see this article as motivation to the next generation in helping making it fair and equal.

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How does the author connect the search terms one to another?

Only some of the terms I used linked together. Gracchi didn’t appear anywhere in the article but “Africa” and “land reform” were mentioned a lot in the article. Examples like these further help the author make the connection stated above (Roman and South African revolt for foreign reform.) The use of these words and how they reappear in today’s text after so long just reaffirms the concept of history repeating itself as a world of an endless recycle of information.

The appropriate MLA citation.

Atuahene, Bernadette. “South Africa’s Land Reform Crisis: Eliminating the Legacy of Apartheid.” Foreign Affairs, vol. 90, no. 4, 2011, pp. 121–129. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23039612.

Shamiso Tunduwani – Team Jupiter

Crisis in South Africa

The terms I looked up on OneSearch was “Gracchi “land reform” Africa” and I found the article “South Africa’s Land Reform Crisis: Eliminating the Legacy of Apartheid” by Bernadette Atuahene. I would say the audience the author intended for are people who are very well versed in the history and politics of South Africa. The article is very specific with statistics so the audience the article targets are people who already have a lot of prior knowledge on such information. The article I found goes into a lot of detail on the problems that are occurring in South Africa as they are trying to give back the blacks land the whites had taken from them. Land is being transferred from the whites to blacks because the land the whites had were taken under colonialism and Apartheid. Only some of the terms I used linked together. Gracchi didn’t appear anywhere in the article but “Africa” and “land reform” were mentioned a lot in the article, for example, “The ANC must realize that aggressive land reform would be far less destabilizing than a violent revolt.” From page 23 of the reading “The Romans, as they subdued the Italian peoples successively in war, used to seize a part of their lands and build towns there, or enroll colonists of their own to occupy those already existing, and their idea was to use these as outposts; but of the land acquired by war they assigned the cultivated part forthwith to the colonists, or sold or leased it.” This shows that the Romans gained their land through invading other lands and colonialism. Similar to the white people who took over and colonized South Africa to make their own. Also just like in South Africa, there isn’t an easy remedy for the way they deprived men of their land and homes. The rich won’t give up their land to the poor because they want to keep the benefits without any care for the poor even though they have the power to help.

Atuahene, B. (2011). South Africa’s Land Reform Crisis: Eliminating the Legacy of Apartheid. Foreign Affairs, 90(4), 121-129.

-Alvin Zhao, Team Venus

 

Land Reform in Africa (Zimbabwe) and Gracchan Rome

  1. Mlambo, Obert Bernard; Mwatwara, Wesley. Moral Arguments for Land Distribution in Contemporary Zimbabwe and Gracchan Rome: A Comparative and Critical Analysis. Journal of Pan African Studies. 9.2 (Apr. 2016): p81. From Literature Resource Center. http://go.galegroup.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ps/i.do?&id=GALE|A461127690&v=2.1&u=cuny_broo39667&it=r&p=LitRC&sw=w&authCount=1
  2. The primary intended audience of this article is mainly for politicians and policy makers in Zimbabwe so that they could understand the errors of using Gracchan land reform, which has lead to corruption in the country.
  3. The search terms “Gracchi, land reform, Africa” are connected several times throughout the article, though the article mainly mentions Zimbabwe more than it does the whole continent of Africa. To summarize, Mlambo and Mwatwara point out how the Gracchan agrarian law that was used in Rome, now being used in Zimbabwe, was an inefficient land reform for the country and additionally is just morally incorrect. They claim “The period of the Gracchi in ancient European classical history reveals some of the pitfalls and dangers of human action, even when the action is intended to correct gross injustices.”
  4. A relevant quote might be “By taking control of the courts away from the senators and setting up the equites as judges, Gracchus gave the lower classes power over the nobles, and by breaking the harmony that existed previously between the senate and the equites, he made the populace a serious rival to both those classes” (Tiberius Gracchus 25). This is because this was the intention, to give more power and distribute land to those who were poorer in Zimbabwe, despite the fact that it did not work out in the end.

 

Stacy, Team Minerva

What We Learn When We Go To The Grave

                             mapPeloponnese-57a919265f9b58974a90d615

      In the article “The Grave” (1825) the author who is unidentified targets he/she’s  primary audience as scholars who are adverse or knowledgeable of the Doctrine of Modern Universalism , additionally any history experts looking for a controversial piece on certain greek figures. The author amalgamates the terms “Gracchi” and “France” to show the change in Europe’ leaders  from the greek era to the Napoleonic era, Napoleon being used as the representation of France. These names are used to represent the great figures who impacted the ancient world . This is seen when the author says “ Fair names too have been strung upon a list… creatures who were once the grace and beauty of the Earth…Antigone and Sappho- Corinna and the mother of Gracchi -Porchia and Agripine … And the story might be ended with him who died an exile on his sea surrounded rock,the first Emperor of France, the king and conqueror of Italy, the Corsican soldier, Napoleon.” In other words the author is listing icons of ancient Europe , the terms are connected because Gracchi ‘ mother and  Napoleon who is from France are considered part of these iconic figures. This is related to the ancient text assigned reading due to the understanding that both illuminate some important individuals or concepts in ancient Europe. For example in the Roman constitution it is stated that “One might say that nearly all authors have handed down to us the reputation for excellence enjoyed by the Constitutions” . This means that they believed that there are figures who have lived before that significantly affected the way they live in their present being, which is a paraphrased version of what “The Grave” was informing us about.

 

Samantha, Team Minerva

 

MLA CITATION
THE GRAVE. (1825). The UniversalDoctrine of Modern Universalismist, Consisting of Essays, Lectures, Extracts and Miscellaneous Pieces; Tending to Explain and Defend the Doctrine of Modern Universalism (1825-1826), 1(9), 144.

 

IMAGE CITATION

ANCIENT PEOPLE YOU KNOW( August ,2017) https://www.thoughtco.com/ancient-people-you-should-know-117290

 

Great land reformer!

For this blog I was looking for “Gracchi “land reform” “United States” and I was curious how Gracchi could be related to the US or vice versa?

In the article “The Antebellum American Textbook Authors’ Populist History of Roman Land Reform and the Gracchi Brothers”, author  McInnis, Edward points out how American books showed Tiberius Gracchus in different lights depending on a period of time. While during 18-19th centuries our country had slavery and Gracchi was a reformer who supposed to stop a free labor in Rome: “After 1830, these textbooks featured modified and abridged versions of the Gracchi episode for nineteenth-century readers, which cast Tiberius and Caius Gracchus in a favorable light…the Gracchi brothers as concerned with the rise of wealthy slaveholding patricians throughout Rome and the decline of small freeholders. Authors describe the Gracchi as individuals who wanted to provide land to poor Romans and support Rome’s “middle class” even though the patricians opposed this idea. They never characterize the Gracchi as demagogues.”

 

The audience for this article are American people, historians and of course, classics students in Brooklyn college)))

Correct MLA citation: 

Mcinnis, Edward. “The Antebellum American Textbook Authors Populist History of Roman Land Reform and the Gracchi Brothers.” Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society, vol. 7, no. 1, Jan. 2015.

Authors wanted to alert readers to threats to republicanism such as inequality and slavery, even if their history divided Americans.They reinforced the nineteenth-century idea of a republic founded on a middle class rather than the eighteenth-century idea of a republic reliant on elite citizens.

If to compare this article to the reading to fragments on Tiberius Gracchus, we can see that there are some similarities. At first, people thought about Gracchi as a good reformer: “The people showed favor to him {Gracchus}, not only when he took up the office, but when he was a candidate, and even before then. Upon his return from Sardinia, the people went out to meet him, and his landing from the boat was greeted with blessings and applause.  [25] Gracchus in his speeches to the people urged them to overthrow the aristocracy and establish a democratic government; and after winning the favor of all classes, he had them not only as supporters but even as instigators of his bold objectives. For every citizen, lured by the hope that the proposed laws would be in his own interests, was ready to risk any danger to ensure that they were adopted.”

But later everything changed when he started to lose supporters. People realize that he is a demagogue and half of the tribes turned against him: “Gracchus gave the lower classes power over the nobles, and by breaking the harmony that existed previously between the Senate and the equities, he made the populace a serious rival to both those classes. By setting all the classes at variance, he built up personal power for himself;” And in the article, it says: “TheUnited States president John Adams, for example, regarded Tiberius and Caius Gracchus as demagogues seeking to stir up the Roman masses in a bid to increase their own power in republican Rome.” which shows how American president as many other people were against Gracchi reforms and his ideas

 

 

Demagogues and the United States.

 

– The primary audience of “Finally getting their recession, demagogues want a return to ’70s.,” are people interested in politics and economic status of the United States in the 90’s.


– The Author does not use the search term “Gracchi” at all, however Gracchi brothers wanted to bring some serious change back in Rome, and this article is about change that happened in the 1990’s. Additionally, he does not specifically mention the United States in relations to the word “demagogues,” however it is clear that he can relate them. The author says that the leaders and important figures want to return US economy to the state at which it was during the 1970’s. The bottom line on all this is that a directionless White House has encouraged the demagogues to propose the failed remedies of the 1960’s and 1970’s – ‘soak the rich,’ castigate business ‘greed,’ pile regulation upon regulation, tax and spend – as if they had slept through the stunning revival of jobs and industry in the 1980’s.” and “Finally getting their recession, demagogues want a return to ’70s.”

 In the “The early Republic and the ‘Struggle of the orders,” I found a quote that relates to the article above.  “During the early republic an aristocratic clique known as the patricians retained power. During military and economic difficulties, the poorer citizens suffered most, esp. without the protection of the kings who had relied on their support.” This quote relates to the article “Finally getting their recession, demagogues want a return to ’70s.” This quote can relate because here it says that poor citizens suffered the most as they had no support from the kings and higher authority. Similarly, poor people in the US had very little to no aid, which then resulted in some reforms where the higher authorities chose to increase taxes for rich people and use those money to provide help to the less fortunate.  


Citation:

Rukeyser, Louis. “Finally getting their recession, demagogues want a return to ’70s.” Caribbean Business, 5 Dec. 1991, p. 48. General OneFile, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=ITOF&sw=w&u=cuny_broo39667&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA11705103&it=r&asid=92cd6b384bd6e7ce709a0c7f526c95df. Accessed 6 Nov. 2017.

 

 

Diana, Team Mercury

Mitochondria

The author wrote this article for people who are interested in the Gracchi in general because his article is about contrasting the differences between Babeuf’s case. In different translations of the case, Babeuf is portrayed in a different light. The purpose of the article is to compare and contrast the two translations. The author connects the search terms to one another by talking about Marcuse’s publications in regards to Babeuf. The terms Gracchi and France are related in the article because Marcuse’s publication occurred during a time with multiple revolts in France against a corrupt leader. The author shows this relation many times throughout the article. For example, in the article, the author writes, “Marcuse recreated the thought of Babeuf in the image of Marcuse’s own Kantian abstractions and yet, revealingly, disparaged it all as primitive.” The author explains that Babeuf’s rebellion against the French leader was considered to be savage because of the way it was conducted. Babeuf’s trial showcased in a negative light because it was probably translated by someone who is against him. This shows the relation between the two search terms because the revolt occurred in France against the Gracchi, who was the leader at the time. Another example is that in the article, the author states, “Babeuf is forced to argue on a more philosophical plane than was his habit, obeying certain rules of legalistic form, but in so doing he concedes nothing to bourgeois ideology, he does not resort to a game of sterile abstractions.” Babeuf is shown as a philosophical man in contrast to what was just said about him in the other translation. He is seen as a wise man in contrast to a primitive savage. This shows the relation between the search terms because of his rebellion against the person in power. In actuality, the Gracchi is a powerhouse duo of Roman brothers that were in charge. However, Gracchi is used as a reference to those brothers in the article to show the power of the leader in France. From the readings, the excerpt states, “What then are the beginnings I speak of and what is the first origin of political societies?” (Readings for CLAS 1110 on the Roman Republic, page 5) this quote is relevant to the article because it questions the political system. Similarly to Babeuf, the excerpt challenges the way the way the society has been run by politics. Despite whether Babeuf is considered to be savage or wise, he was against the way France was ruled, and he revolted against the leader.

Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 25.3 (1995): 397-413. Web.IMG_0255

– Rebecca Lee, Team Jupiter

Your Republic, My Republic

 

The intended audience for this article are people who have a combined interest in both politics and history because it speaks about the founding of the roman republic and how the term “republic” evolved into what we know it as today. Its target audience may also be modern day republicans who are interested in the history of the label of their party.

The article does not connect the search terms “France” and “Gracchi” but rather briefly mentions the economic policy of the Gracchi and later on heavily discusses the different types of republics in European history. It states that the Gracchi “sought to redistribute land to the lower classes, territorial accumulation as a form of agrarian policy became linked to the populist threat to the rule of an Optimatedominated senatorial republic: in a word, tyranny.” (Kennedy 2). The goal of the Gracchi was to give land to lower classes and seize control over the senatorial republic. The article later discusses the various differences in economic policies of European nations and how the policies molded the term “republic” into what we understand it as today. The article states that “French mercantilism was clearly embedded within the political theory of absolutism and the social relations of French feudalism. As a consequence of these social, political and economic differences, a classical republicanism of virtue persisted in France right up to the Revolution France’s commercial empires in the Americas or, further back, with Rome’s military-political empire” (Kennedy 329). In other words, Frances economic attitude affected their political stances as well, and vice versa.

“When owing to floods, famines, failure of crops or other such causes there occurs
such a destruction of the human race as tradition tells us has more than once happened, and as we must believe will often happen again…it is a necessary consequence that the man who excels in bodily strength and in courage will lead and rule over the rest.” (Polybius 5). Just like Frances economic policy had a lot to do with it’s politics, polybeos’ theory describes what he deems to be a natural occurrence to the political status of a group of people who’s economic status changes (due to natural disasters). Both writings support the idea that a nation’s economic status weighs heavily on its political status.

Gabriella, Team Hestia

MLA citation:

Kennedy, Geoff. “The ‘Republican Dilemma’ and the Changing Social Context of Republicanism in the Early Modern Period.” European Journal of Political Theory, SAGE Journals, 11 June 2009, journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1474885109103833#articleCitationDownloadContainer.

 

Voting Systems, Puzzling Humans Since the Second Century

Tod des Tiberius Gracchus / aus: Rotteck - Death of Tiberius Gracchus / Rotteck - Gracchus, Tiberius Sempronius

  1. Posner, Eric A., and E. Glen Weyl. “Voting squared: quadratic voting in democratic politics.” Vanderbilt Law Review, Mar. 2015, p. 441-470. Academic OneFile. Accessed 6 Nov. 2017.
  2. The primary intended audience for this publication are lawmakers who decide how elections should be carried out. This article proposes a new way of voting, called quadratic voting, which the authors believe would amend the inequalities of democracy, majority-rule voting, and other voting systems which privilege one group over another. If people in the United States government could be persuaded that quadratic voting could be a good alternative to democracy, this article would have achieved it’s purpose.
  3. The authors do not connect the search terms “Gracchi” and “demagogues Russia” together directly. However, since Russia’s government can be described as a republic or democracy, this article is still relevant. The authors highlight that in governments such as Russia’s, “…people with strong preferences will prevail if they happen to form a majority, but if not, the policy outcome will reduce social welfare rather than increase it” (Posner and Weyl 470).
  4. “By taking control of the courts away from the senators and setting up the equites as judges, Gracchus gave the lower classes power over the nobles, and by breaking the harmony that existed previously between the senate and the equites, he made the populace a serious rival to both those classes” (Tiberius Gracchus 25). Here, the narrator recounts that Tiberius instituted a kind of democracy in his land, which gave a voice to the poor who were the majority. The point of this quote is to illustrate that since the poor were the majority, they could vote in their own favor and win every time, ignoring the needs of the wealthy. Posner and Weyl argue that democracy and one-vote per person systems can’t work for the benefit of a nation.

Elene T., Team Mars

The Fall Of Rome

Rome’s chaotic conclusion has multiple causes, which makes it extremely intriguing to learn about. We, as scholars, get to investigate and compare the issues surrounding Rome’s demise, to current events. The primary intended audience for the article, “Rise of the welfare/warfare state: the death throes of the once-great Roman Republic began when its leadership embarked on militarism and exploited class envy to consolidate power” would include history enthusiasts, particularly those well intrigued by the Roman Empire, and young scholars seeking information.

Image result for fall of rome

The search term “Gracchi Demagogues United States” is heavily associated with the article selected, which gives a brief overview of one of the major causes of the gradual demise of Rome, civil conflict. The word “Gracchi” appears constantly in the text, whereas “demagogues” does not, while “United States” only appears once. Although the term, “demagogues,” does not show up, it is surely portrayed, as the “Gracchi” were depicted as actual demagogues: political leaders who sought support by adhering to the interests of the majority. In Bonta’s article, the Gracchi are demagogues as they adopt the interests of the common people, who are most likely the majority. This is confirmed when the author first mentions the Gracchi, who play an essential role in the eyes of the poor class, “For these ills, the Gracchi offered an equally unpalatable solution: confiscating land from Rome’s wealthy classes and forcibly redistributing it among the poor.” The Gracchi attempted to obtain the support of the lower class by tackling a major issue: the issuance of land unfairly and inadequately amongst Roman Patricians and the lower class, comprising of plebians and slaves, which consequently led to multiple civil unrest situations, resulting in bloodshed. Bonta then furthers the article by claiming that the chaos caused by the Gracchi resulted in setting a “perilous precedent: that political differences could be resolved by using the power of mob violence to override the law.” This is important because it connects the term “Gracchi” to the article, and it also highlights a consequence of the civil unrest in Rome.

ZI-0JZS-2004-NOV15-IDSI-31-1

The selected article is heavily connected to the homework reading. We can compare Bonta’s version of the Gracchi’s interest in public affairs to the homework reading’s, and see that they are completely alike. According to the reading assigned for homework, “In 133 a tribune, Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, proposed to enforce the long-neglected limit of 500 iugera on holdings of ager publicus (= public land), and to redistribute the surplus to the poor in plots of 30 iugera which would become private land.” This quote, which appears at the beginning of the section labeled “The Roman Evolution,” signifies a predominant period in history, and is important because it shows how political leaders used public interest to obtain backing (demagogues, which Bonta indirectly implies too of them), and displays what was truly a starting point in Rome’s unfortunate demise, as pandemonium increased exponentially, “Furious opposition led to his (Gracchus) murder. Ten years later his brother, C. Sempronius Gracchus suffered the same fate, when he attempted to bring in a wide-ranging series of reforms, embracing provincial administration, the corn supply, judicial reform, and the status of the Italian allies. The use of violence in civil disputes became a destructive trend in republican politics.” This second quote alludes to the civil unrest caused by the death of the tribunes, as it became a “destructive trend,” and summarizes one of the main points of Bonta’s article – that internal chaos led to the fall of Rome.

 

MLA Citation:
Bonta, Steve. “Rise of the welfare/warfare state: the death throes of the once-great Roman Republic began when its leadership embarked on militarism and exploited class envy to consolidate power.” The New American, 15 Nov. 2004, p. 36+. Academic OneFile, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=cuny_broo39667&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA125150419&it=r&asid=85fbefed6e398c0257e45dcad7bb00df. Accessed 5 Nov. 2017.

 

Daniel, Team Diana.

70s Demagogues

I searched up the terms “Gracchi demagogues “United States”” and clicked on the first option that they gave me. The title of the article is Finally getting their recession, demagogues want a return to ’70s, and it’s mostly directed to the general population. It informs those who are reading it about the causes of the economic failures due to the demagogues giving them ideas on how to fix the problems. There wasn’t an exact correlation between my search terms and the article but through the homework readings we can see how Gracchus could be an example of a demagogue. A demagogue is a political leader who goes by popular demands of the people without using reasonable arguments. Here we can see in Appian, Civil Wars, “Gracchus in his speeches to the people urged them to overthrow the aristocracy and establish a democratic government; and after winning the favor of all classes, he had them not only as supporters, but even as instigators of his bold objectives.” (1.7) He was able to get the people on his side through popularity and try to make changes to help everyone even though that didn’t go very well. The demagogues in the article tried to make three different changes to help improve the economy but with each try, it backfired. It was all about making money to those of the higher power and creating “regulations” to control the money. “A directionless White House has encouraged the demagogues to propose the failed remedies …”soak the rich,” castigate business “greed,” pile regulation upon regulation, tax and spend.” (Rukeyser) In many cases in history, we can see how those of higher powers had some type of intentions of helping but it was only backed up by words and not actual planned out reasoning.

 

Rukeyser, Louis. “Finally getting their recession, demagogues want a return to ’70s.” Caribbean Business, 5 Dec. 1991, p. 48. General OneFile, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=ITOF&sw=w&u=cuny_broo39667&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA11705103&it=r&asid=92cd6b384bd6e7ce709a0c7f526c95df. Accessed 5 Nov. 2017.

– Ivory, Team Artemis

“Keep the public rich and the private poor”

After refining my search of “Gracchi France” multiple times, I finally settled on the article “‘Keep the Citizens Poor’: Machiavelli’s Prescription for Republican Poverty” by Julie L. Rose. This article focuses on Machiavelli’s argument for why we should “keep the public rich and their citizens poor”; instead of agreeing with the common interpretation of this which believes citizens must live in a certain state of “material austerity”, Rose argues that a better interpretation “requires only that citizens maintain certain attitudes towards poverty and wealth” (734). Although my search was of Gracchi, the brothers were only mentioned once in reference to Machiavelli’s discussion of the Gracchi and the Agrarian law in Discourses I. 37; however, the article repeatedly argues points that are in alignment with the views of the Gracchi brothers. Machiavelli discusses that in order to have a successful government the citizens must not become too extravagant in their material possessions. “He expresses a similar sentiment in another passage, as he contrasts the corruption of Italy, France and Spain with the ‘goodness’ of Germany.” (Rose 737). The German Free Cities are discussed in length as they offer a great model for “their virtuous and free ways of life” (Rose 736).

In order to have political success, we must also take economic matters into account. Machiavelli believed the people of Rome to have been one of the best models for the “keeping citizens poor” lifestyle; they didn’t over indulge in material items. Similar to Polybius’ argument, “they gave way to their appetites owing to this superabundance, and came to think that the rulers must be distinguished from their subjects by a peculiar dress, that there should be a peculiar luxury and variety in the dressing and serving of their viands, and that they should meet with no denial in the pursuit of their amours, however lawless. 8 These habits having given rise in the one case to envy and offense and in the other to an outburst of hatred and passionate resentment, the kingship changed into a tyranny; the first steps towards its overthrow were taken by the subjects, and conspiracies began to be formed” (6), growing too lavish disrupts a perfect government. Rose’s article is geared towards any person who is a part of the public and can change the ways in which we live, especially voting citizens. It offered me a new point of view as well as being a very interesting read. It is important to think of all the things that go into leading a perfect society; it’s not just the leader and form of government that is implemented which affect it. Considering our currently consumer driven lives, altering our views towards poverty may be very beneficial in order to continue to flourish. The lavish lifestyle is not sustainable; if we hope to be able to say “Long Live the Republic”, we need to live more as the prosperous Roman Republic once did.

Works Cited

Rose, Julie L. “‘Keep the Citizens Poor’: Machiavelli’s Prescription for Republican Poverty.” Political Studies, vol. 64, no. 3, 1 Oct. 2016, pp. 734–747. OneSearch, doi:10.1111/1467-9248.12204.

-Sheila Kelly, Team Saturn

Unfair Gracchi

gracchi brothers

The search return I got from using OneSearch was an article called “Rise of the welfare/warfare state: the death throes of the once-great Roman Republic began when its leadership embarked on militarism and exploited class envy to consolidate power.” The article was written by Steve Bonta who seemed to be about the beginning of Rome from when it was found to the Outbreak of the Social War and in between; there were so many events/ battles that happened. I feel like the primary intended audience of this publication would be people who may need to find out more information of what happened when Rome was found so people who may be studying about Rome. I used three search terms which were Gracchi, demagogues, and “United States” and two of three of the search terms go together in this article which is Gracchi and demagogues as seen in this article by Steve Bonta “But with the tumult under the Gracchi, the waning Roman Republic entered a new, more perilous stage of decline, in which demagogues incited civil unrest with welfare-state programs, and a new generation of ambitious politician-generals began to covet absolute power.” Gracchi are Roman tribunes which tribunes are Roman leaders that are very popular. Demagogues are leaders who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power. Both the terms Gracchi and demagogues are used together by the author to show how a popular leader in Rome can try to gain power by lying and not doing as they say, pretty much messing with the peoples emotions just to gain their support. From the ancient texts assigned to read for homework, a quote under Fragments on the Gracchi, it states “Gracchus in his speeches to the people urged them to overthrow the aristocracy and establish a democratic government; and after winning the favor of all classes, he had them not only as supporters, but even as instigators of his bold objectives.” This is related  to the article since it also shows that Gracchus had the ability to get the people on his side and not only that, but to help with the goals that he has in mind for Rome.

MLA citation: Bonta, Steve. “Rise of the Welfare/Warfare State: the Death Throes of the Once-Great Roman Republic Began When Its Leadership Embarked on Militarism and Exploited Class Envy to Consolidate Power.(History-Rome).” The New American, vol. 20, no. 23, 2004, pp. 36–39.

-Raine, Team Jupiter

 

A French Gracci

I read “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic” by Al Alp, which I found through the search terms “Gracci France.” The author, Alp, mainly compared and contrasted an essay written by Herbert Marcuse about Gracchus Babeuf, and Babeuf’s words himself, so I think the article is primarily intended to be read by scholars of history, or people who already have prior knowledge of the time period and who Barbeuf was. My search terms, Gracci and France, go hand and hand in this article. Gracci is another name for Gracchus Babeuf, and the article focuses on his supposed attempt to overthrow the French government. The author talks a lot about Marcuse’s point of view using those two search terms (like how for Marcuse, “the Great French Revolution was to be devoid of working class struggle and only preparatory to a bourgeois stage of history,” which he belives is Barbeuf’s fault).

In our Roman readings we read fragments from Polybius, where he talked about how the world had changed government-wise, and how a monarchy in present day Greece (which would be around 168 BCE) was much different than a monarchy in Ancient Greece. In Alp’s article, he discussed how Marcuse showed “a remarkable ignorance of history. The mass media of XVIII century France was quite different from that of the late XIX century. Advertising in Babeuf’s day was inexistent,” which is why Barbeuf couldn’t have been a propagandist on the level Marcuse accuses him to be. In Polybius’ text, he writes that there is a “cycle of political revolution, the course appointed by nature in which constitutions change, disappear, and finally return to the point from which they started.” Both Alp and Polybius stress the importance of the time period in which something happens, for it all amounts to generational differences.

Proper MLA citation: Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 1995, pp. 397–413.

Camille, Team Diana