Poly branches proposed by Polybius


The American constitutional system includes a notion known as the Separation of Powers. In this system, several branches of government are created and power is shared between them. At the same time, the powers of one branch can be challenged by another branch. This is what the system of checks and balances is all about. The basis behind checks and balances is to prevent the government from becoming too powerful in one branch. For example, the Executive Branch can veto bills from the Legislative Branch, but the Legislative Branch can override the veto. This system is applied primarily in constitutional governments. This article shares interconnected ideas with the Greek historian, Polybius. He analyzed the “ancient Roman mixed constitution under three main divisions: monarchy (represented by the consul); aristocracy (the Senate); and democracy (the people)” (quote from article) and proposed many ideas regarding the separation of powers that greatly influenced future monarchies and cultures. His writings were influential among Montesquieu who created the frame for the US Constitution. “Monarchy first changes into its vicious allied form, tyranny; and next, the abolishment of both gives birth to aristocracy. Aristocracy by its very nature degenerates into oligarchy; and when the commons inflamed by anger take vengeance on this government for its unjust rule, democracy comes into being; and in due course the license and lawlessness of this form of government produces mob-rule to complete the series.” This quote by Polybius, in essence, describes the flaws of different types of governments that don’t incorporate checks and balances and separations of powers. The consequences of governments like monarchies, aristocracies, and oligarchies create the potential for mob- rule that can be avoided if governments dont hold too much power above its people and dont make decisions on their own but ask for approval among other branches and its people. This audience of this article is aimed to those who would like to be informed of the different types of governments and where the foundations of the US Constitution originated from (Polybius).
MLA: “Checks and Balances.” Britannica Online Academic Edition (2017): Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Web.

– lauren ishay team vesta

Did Anything Really Change?

A Distant Elite: How Meritocracy Went Wrong

Wilfred M. McClay


McClay, Wilfred M. “A distant elite: how meritocracy went wrong.” The Hedgehog Review, vol. 18, no. 2, 2016, p. 36+. Academic OneFile, go.galegroup.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ps/i.do?


The primary audience of this publication can be historians. People who study the constitution, Thomas Jefferson, or even the effects of how America tired to make an aristocracy and it didn’t work out the way it was supposed to.


Adams, on the other hand, regarded the emergence of an aristocracy as something both inevitable and inherently dangerous. He feared the influence of any such aristoi, and sought to restrain their influence by means of the classical constitutional model, as articulated by Polybius, of a “mixed government,” in which aristocracy’s distinctive political voice would be recognized as such and then confined to a senate-like body.

Paragraph 3, lines 8- 13


Consequently this peculiar form of constitution possesses an irresistible power of attaining every object upon which it is resolved. 5 When again they are freed from external menace, and reap the harvest of good fortune and affluence which is the result of their success, and in the enjoyment of this prosperity are corrupted by flattery and idleness and wax insolent and overbearing, as indeed happens often enough, 6 it is then especially that we see the state providing itself a remedy for the evil from which it suffers.

Polybius, Fragments of Book 6


The writer makes a mention of Polybius when he talks about Adams’s fear of a rising aristocracy. Jefferson believed in a natural aristocracy with the idea idea that they should be separated from the general public and groomed for public office. Adams on the other hand thought that though it is inevitable it can be contained because they fought a revolution against a King who didn’t rule them well and they are trying to avoid another monarchy. With a new government one has to let go of everything that they fought against. He wanted what Polybius suggested as a government. One that took one certain aspects of other governments while still making it something new. Looking at the success of the Roman Republic one could agree that something similar to Rome could easily work.

Can the past be the Future?

The term i searched was “Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” and I chose “The Collapse of Empires”. It seems the targeted audience are people who live in countries that are considered to be “superpowers”. It goes over how some of the greatest empires in all of history at some point collapsed. As stated by Kevin Hartnett “Our country’s political gridlock and economic recession have prompted talk about the end of the American era” is his view that there is even talks about dangers that may happen to America. The economic recession and political gridlock, which is a difficulty to pass laws that appease citizens, are factors that can affect America. This is similar to what had happened to the Romans, “had left Rome’s citizens unwilling to fight for their empire”  which is a type of political gridlock. So already there is a link between the Romans citizens and the American people.

Public distrust toward the government is very critical because if the people who are meant to support, stability and be the backbone of the country can not even place their trust with them that can lead to future backlash. Could what happen to Rome possibly happen to another superpower of today? It seems the intended target is towards the people of powerful countries and to alert them that there trust toward their respective governments are what keeps them afloat. Although it is hard to compare the Roman empire to any country today, there are similarities that can be found between itself and the Superpower countries of today.

In this unit, I realized that it was linked to what we had discussed in Art 1010. We learned how Romans were so fascinated by Greek architecture and sculptures and included them into their own works of art.

-Al-Bishr Askar , Team Hephaestus


Hartnett, Kevin. “The collapse of empires.” Bookmarks, July-Aug. 2010,


The Americanized Checks and Balances

MLA Citation:

Chinard, Gilbert. “Polybius and the American Constitution.” JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/stable/2707009sid=primo&origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents. Date accessed: 11/05/2017.

(I couldn’t indent lines two and three above)

In his article, “Polybius and the American Constitution,” Gilbert Chinard reviews the ideals of Polybius on the forms of government. Polybius declared that there are three main types of constitutions: aristocracy, oligarchy and democracy. He believed each form to be truly unstable and criticized the ongoing cycle. This cycle, as Polybius describes, is in which a country will go from aristocracy to oligarchy to democracy. Once this part is completed, the rich begin to influence the state through bribes followed by a civic cohesion and violence when a mob rule takes over the state. A tyrant arises from the mob, and the cycle begins again. Chinard writes that Polybius preferred a mixed constitution which includes all three in its rule. One much like the US Constitution. Chinard states:

The system Polybius outlined was not perfect, though the principles under which he rested were excellent: for the executive was never sufficiently separated from the legislative, nor had these powers a control upon each other defined with sufficient accuracy. This precedent made very clear the task of the American legislators: it was to preserve the principle of checks and balances.

In other words, Chinard is expressing how heavily the creation of the US Constitution was influenced by Polybius and his beliefs. Even though the founding fathers may not have known the philosopher, his ideas held a great deal of popularity amongst them and other nations. They favored his idea of having a mixed form of government when each part is balanced and none too powerful. The intended audience for this type of work would be anyone who is interested in the history of US constitution, its creation and influences. It does not seem to be general public but rather historians.


Khilola, Team Juno


It is Time to Remember our Constitution

When I search the term ” Polybius ‘United States’ constitution “, the article that most caught my attention was “The Constitution, by Hand”. After reading it through, I found out that it is not an article related to Polybius, but it is so interesting that I would like to talk about it for this assignment. The author, Morgan O’Hara, he is an artist and he had a thought by the beginning of 2017 when our Mr. president Donald Trump inaugurated. He started an artistic protest for minorities who have been attacked due to racist discrimination, he hand-copied the constitution in public places. The public followed what was he doing, more and more people joined him to copy the constitution fragments. The primary audience that O’Hara intended to motive in this article is to all the people in the United States, as he mentions: “It is important for us to become more intensely aware of our rights as citizens of the United States, so that as the current government tries to take them away….” O’Hara wants to be an example to let people think about how is our constitution protect all the United States citizen and non-citizen and how is our Mr. president being racist to immigrants. In the ancient texts that we read, it presents:” Thus here again one might plausibly say that the people’s share in the government is the greatest and that the constitution is a democratic one. ” It states that the democracy with the constitution is the best government form. This was the reason of why O’Hara started his artistic protest and wrote it down in words form “The Constitution, by Hand”, he also believed that the constitution is the document that supports the democratic government and it protects our right.


O’Hara, Morgan. “The Constitution, by Hand.” New York Times, 2 July 2017, p. 2(L). Academic OneFile, go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=AONE&sw=w&u=cuny_broo39667&v=2.1&id=GALE%7CA497526732&it=r&asid=f9d2059b0052ddb6ec700a769d83eed1. Accessed 6 Nov. 2017.


Qiyi, Team Vesta

The Roman Republic and Slavery

The terms I entered on my one search were “Sicily”, “slave”, “Rome” and “Haiti”. I came across the article, “The Ghost of Spartacus” by Bulent Diken. The audience that the author is targeting is people who are interested in war and culture. This article explains how humanity is a series of ghosts and how these ghosts have a continuity with the past and the future (Derrida 1994: 138). It deals with answering the question on how to have a conversation with the ghost by focusing on a 1960s film called Spartacus, by Stanley Kubrick.

The film is about the corruption of the Roman Republic and the menial work done by slaves. One rebellious slave named Spartacus is sold to a Gladiator trainer and after he devises a plan to lead the other slaves to rebel and escape to their homelands. A quote which includes both the terms “slave” and “Rome” is:

“The next scene brings us to the Senate in Rome, where we hear how the gladiators are ‘ravaging’ the countryside, ‘forcing’ other slaves to join them, ‘looting’, ‘robbing’, ‘burning’ estates” (Diken 2011: 402).

I chose a quote from “Appian, Civil Wars, 1.7-27” and it says:

At the same time the ownership of slaves brought them great gain from the multitude of their progeny, who increased because  they were exempt from military service. Thus certain powerful men became extremely rich and the race of slaves multiplied throughout the country, while the Italian people dwindled in numbers and strength, being oppressed by penury, taxes, and military service.

This quote relates to the article I read because it talks about the same idea of slaves and their oppression. It is relevant because it supports the fact that slaves are used for attaining “great gain” for the powerful men. These “powerful men” are the Roman Republic in the Spartacus article.

BÜLENT DIKEN (2011) The ghost of Spartacus, Journal of War & Culture
Studies, 4:3, 399-411.



The Changing Life aspects of Africa due to Land Reform

Title of the Article:
What is the proper citation for this article?
Bradstock, Alastair. “Changing Livelihoods and Land Reform: Evidence from the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.” World Development, vol. 33, no. 11, 2005, pp. 1979–1992.
What is the article about?
The article is about the Government of South Africa’s land reform policy and which groups are benefiting from it, as well as what lifestyles have changed because of it.  But the article also discusses what levels of wealth and agriculture have been affected by this plan.  The final big part of the essay that is discussed is how the low amount of technical support has an impact on those areas.

Who is the Intended Audience?
From the looks of this article, it can most likely be seen that the intended audience for this article are those that are interested in the crisis going on in South Africa.  It can most likely be seen that this story is in a way a mini book when you see its layout.  Perhaps the intended audience can also be seen as someone who is interested in Politics and wants to help with situations like this.

How did the search words connect to this article?

The search words “Gracchi “land reform” Africa” did have a large significance on the article.  Now, the word Gracchi didn’t show up in the text itself, but the other words did.  The first line of the introduction straight up connects them by saying “This paper examines the changing livelihoods of eight beneficiary groups situated in the Northern Cape province of South Africa who have accessed land through the government’s land reform program.”.

What part of the text we read relates to this?

“Other gains included the abolishment of debt-bondage in 326, access to public land, and allotments of conquered territory for the poorer citizens. The alleviation of the burdens of the poor ended the plebeian struggle as a radical movement.” This can be seen as a relevant quote from the text that we read as it shows how the people were more able to gain control of the land that they needed rather than the government.  The story also discusses a lot about the struggles of the people in South Africa who relied on agriculture, yet had that suffering through the long dip in agricultural production.

#CLAS6 #LongLivetheRepublic #GracchilandreformAfrica

  • Scott Vincent, Team Cronos

Polybius’s Take on Rome’s Imperial History and the Modern Incarnations


After searching for a good article to blog about, I stumbled upon the article, History of the Hyperpower by Eliot Cohen. The article is intended to inform the audience of the comparisons between the United States “empire” and the major imperial powers of the times of Alexander. The article also explains how the ancient world used the ideals of imperialism and its tactics and explores how imperial history contrasts with modern United States policies. The primary intended audience include historians who wish to know more about the topic of imperial history and people who intend to learn more about this line of foreign policies, along with people who may be studying political science and foreign affairs. The author does not directly connect the search terms of “Polybius” and “’United States’ Constitution”, but rather uses Polybius as an example to further delve into his paragraph about “The Art of Understatement”, which the author goes into how imperial problems lead to people questioning imperial policy. Cohen goes into how the ancient world “considered Rome’s success both a marvel and a puzzle” because although they conquered a large part of territory across Europe and the Middle East, they lacked a rich culture and political scene. For example, Cohen says, “Polybius and many who followed him sought an explanation in the role of the Senate, a body that, although internally divided, provided a degree of steadiness to otherwise turbulent policy. Underlying the turmoil of Roman politics, these authors claimed, was a consistent imperial style that persisted despite the rise and fall of consuls and dictators.” These quotes more in-depth into how historians like Polybius questioned the ideals of imperialism and its tactics. To further explain this, I looked back into the Readings on the Roman Republic and re-read the fragments from book 6 by Polybius. When reading the paragraph “Conclusion of the Treatise on the Roman Republic”, Polybius says, “But the Romans, though they had met with severe reverses in the war, and had now, roughly speaking, lost all their allies and were in momentary expectation of Rome itself being placed in peril, 8 after listening to this plea, neither disregarded their dignity under the pressure of calamity, nor neglected to take into consideration every proper step (Polybius Book 6, 58 7-8). In the quote by Polybius, it helps provide more clarity for the article as he further explains the causes of Rome’s imperial problems through their aggressive foreign policies and as a result, hinders Rome in the process.
MLA Citation:
Cohen, Eliot A. “History and the Hyperpower;” Foreign Affairs, vol. 83, no. 4, 2004, pp. 49-63, Social Science Premium Collection, https://login.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu/docview/214288403?accountid=7286.
-A.C. Bowman, Team Saturn

Slave Rebellion

  1. Diken, Bülent.  “The Ghost of Spartacus.” Journal of War &Amp; Culture Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, 2011, pp. 399–411.
  2. The primary intended audience of the publication are those people who wanted to know more about slavery and believed in human rights and freedom.
  3. I searched “Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” and I chose the article “The Ghost of Spartacus.”. The author connected the search term with “slave”, and he was depicted how did the slave fought for their freedom. In the article, it said,  ‘When a free man dies he loses the pleasure of life; a slave loses his pain. Death is the only freedom a slave knows. That’s why he’s not afraid of it. That’s why we will win’. This shows the slaves didn’t treat as  human, they had no rights and no freedom, they wanted to free from their master and have a life.
  4. And it seems relevant to Diodorus, The Library, fragments from books 34/35 in Roman Republic. “…and presently the slaves fought a battle with Lucius Hypsaeus, who had come from Rome and commanded eight thousand Sicilians. In this fight the rebels won the day; they were then twenty thousand in number, and very soon afterwards their army increased to two hundred thousand men. And although they fought against the Romans themselves, yet they often came off as conquerors, and were very seldom defeated.” We can tell from the quote in my selected publication, the slaves were not afraid of death at all, because they already had no life; therefore, they really needed to fight-fight for their freedom and rights!


Team Jupiter, Shiyin Zhao

Slavery in Rome

The terms ” Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” had best interested me and I chose the article named Slavery and Inhumanity. The MLA citation for this article was Harrill, J. Albert. “Slavery and Inhumanity: Keith Bradley’s Legacy on Slavery in New Testament Studies.” Biblical Interpretation, vol. 21, no. 4/5, Oct. 2013, pp. 506-514. EBSCOhost, . The primary audience was intended for the readers and scholars who were interested in slavery and how it was depicted in New Testament studies. The author J. Albert Harrill had gathered most of his information  from a lecture by a well known scholar known as Keith Bradley. The author talks about slavery as whole and goes more in depth when it comes to Rome however does not really connect with the term Haiti.  The author states ” that this process of enslavement was not random but served the interests of the slaveholders as a recognized mechanism of social control intentionally designed to “animalize” the slave, due in part to the Roman rejection of Aristotle’s ideas about natural slavery.” This shows that the author compares the slavery to descriptive words like animals and relates it back to Aristotle and Rome.  Harrill also states this  ”  recreates three key elements in the Roman enslavement process: (1) becoming a beast of burden; (2) suffering repeated beatings and randomly inflicted violence, including sexual violence;and (3) being sold and resold numerous times as a passive commodity. ” This also shows that he gives a visual idea of what was going on during slavery and how it brutal it actually was giving numerous examples of what took place.  This relates to the Roman Republic that we had studied for homework.  In the Roman Republic it states “the slaves fought a battle with Lucius Hypsaeus, who had come from Rome and commanded eight thousand Sicilians. In this fight the rebels won the day.” This shows that you can only push slaves to a certain point otherwise they will rebel and no longer take that kind of brutal treatment. This shows that they came together to fight for their freedom and do whatever it takes to reach their victory.

Slave Rebellions in Sicily and Haiti

I searched up the terms “Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” and found an article named “The collapse of empires”. The primary intended audience of this publication are the people who wants to know about the slavery. The author connects the search terms “Slave” and “Haiti” by the depicting the fact how slaves in Haiti in 1793 were fed up of the slavery and they wanted to be free which made them rebel. “Many slave rebellions sprang up in the Caribbean in the 18th century, but only one succeeded.” This portrays how they tried various times to rebel to get rid of slavery but they often failed. “The author further states, “Bell sets this compelling work of historical fiction during the early years (1791-93) of the Haitian Revolution; it opens with wealthy white planters scheming to unleash a controlled slave revolt in order to tighten the alliance between upper- and lower-class colonists. However, the revolt soon spirals out of their control. Toussaint L’Ouverture emerges as the leader of the rebellion, which culminates in the 1793 burning of the city Cap-Haitien and prompts many French settlers to flee the island.” This quote explains that finally slaves in Haiti were successful in their attempts. It shows how white planters schemed wrong and they thought that the slaves are weak and they can’t do anything. Their wrong plans made them lose and the slaves were able to set their revolt high against their white owners. Their revolt made many French settlers to flee from Haiti. This incident can be connected to the slave revolts happened in the Sicily mentioned in the reading “Roman Republic” that we read for homework. The Roman Republic states that, “Thirty days had now passed since the first beginning of this rebellion and presently the slaves fought a battle with Lucius Hypsaeus, who had come from Rome and commanded eight thousand Sicilians. In this fight the rebels won the day; they were then twenty thousand in number, and very soon afterwards their army increased to two hundred thousand men. And although they fought against the Romans themselves, yet they often came off as conquerors, and were very seldom defeated.” (Page 22) This is very similar to the slave revolts in Haiti. After analyzing both the texts, it can be concluded that whether it is Rome or America, slaves who have been tortured by their owners, stood up and fought back for their rights. Their strength increased because they were merging and rebelling together which opened a way towards their victory.


MLA Citations-

Hartnett, Kevin. “The Collapse of Empires.” Bookmarks, 2010, p. 12.

Roman Republic”. P. 22. https://pastinpresenttense.files.wordpress.com/2017/08/readings-on-the-roman-republic1.pdf


Gurleen Kaur, Team Venus

Spartacus the Slave

The term I searched was Sicily Slave Rome Haiti. The article I selected was, “The ghost of Spartacus”, and its MLA citation is Diken, Bülent. “The Ghost of Spartacus.” Journal of War &Amp; Culture Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, 2011, pp. 399–411. This article was written for those who admire Spartacus and those who are interested in Roman slavery. The author connects the search terms “Slave” and “Rome” by explaining how how the slaves were the ones that kept Rome together. “The slaves ‘are always with us, and we are the unique product of slaves and slavery. That is what makes us Romans’ . As such,as the ‘irrational’ element of a rational totality, the slave is the symptomatic  point at which Rome encounters its own unreason”(Fast 1960: 39). This quote explains how the slaves were always attached to the Romans and without the slaves, the Romans would not be able to think for themselves. “That is what makes us Romans”, proves this even more by explaining how people cannot be Romans without slaves.”The Spartacus War deprives Rome of the commerce of all south Italy. As a result, half the precincts of Rome are without bread and the city is close to panic”(BÜLENT DIKEN). Without the help of the slaves, the Romans cannot defend for themselves. They rely on the slaves for assistance and struggle when going against them.

“Those agricultural operations are performed by slaves with fettered ankles and by the hands of malefactors with branded faces! although the Earth who is addressed as our mother and whose cultivation is spoken of as worship is not so dull that when we obtain even our farm-work from these persons one can believe that this is not done against
her will and to her indignation”(Readings for CLAS 1110 on the Roman Republic, page 18). This quote shows the importance of slaves, as the slaves were the ones that took care of farming for the Romans. Without the slaves, the crops would not be cared for and the Romans would have to take of it themselves.


Diken, Bülent. “The Ghost of Spartacus.” Journal of War &Amp; Culture Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, 2011, pp. 399–411

“Readings for CLAS 1110 on the Roman Republic.” WordPress.com, wordpress.com/post/pastinpresenttense.wordpress.com/21983.

Frank,Team Artemis




The Inequality After Apartheid

In this blogpost, I researched the topic of: Grachi “land reform” Africa. While researching, I came across the article “South Africa’s Land Reform Crisis: Eliminating the Legacy of Apartheid,” written by Bernadette Atuahene; who discusses the difficulties of redistributing land after the end of apartheid in South Africa in 1994. Despite the decades that has passed since the end of the law set by the original European colonizers of Africa, “it was extremely difficult for the new regimes to redistribute the land fairly and efficiently” (121). The author highlights how the social status and economic status of many citizens have influenced in which land was divided after apartheid. Though there was the end of political separation between those of different races, there was still a large economic divide between the white and African residents. The effects of apartheid lingered in the form of the defined line between the wealthy and poor, in which inhibited the government to establish a system of fair land reform.


Similar to Gracchi’s ideas of land reform, the idealized ways of solving tensions between the slaves and Romans also lead to unprecedented problems. The South Africans argued that they are the natives of their land, and that “land must be returned to blacks in South Africa, no matter what the consequences are for the current owners and for political stability in the country” (122). The natives’ argument brings up racism and orientalism that dates back to the 18th century, and presents a debate whether the current white citizens of the country continue to have the right to their land. The strong historical and emotional ties of South Africa’s history of monarchy portray how the past continues to influence public’s perspective on ownership today.

The outrage of unfair land distribution by the South Africans connects to the Roman’s opinions on land reform in Appian, Civil Wars. According to the text, the land reforms of Gracchi meant that the rich Romans “collected in groups, and made lamentation, and accused the poor of appropriating the results of their tillage, their vineyards, and their dwellings… and were angry that they should be robbed of their share of the common property.” The Romans displayed their outrage to the government, because their personal property was being exploited and taken by the government without much consent. The public argued that they had the earned the rights to their land from military services, ancestors, or loans. The idea of who had the original rights to the land is presented in both Africa and Italy.


Atuahene’s article was originally published in Foreign Affairs, a magazine dedicated to print works about international and foreign policies on important current events. The article of the magazine is most likely directed towards an American audience with a high education background. The article focuses on the political and economic inequalities of South Africa, which may be intended to provide the audience in a more profound perspective on the issues; especially from an author that graduated from Yale Law School and worked in South Africa as an Fulbright Scholar. Atuahene’s education and work experience enables the audience to acknowledge that she is creditable to provide an unbiased apprehension on the subject matter.


Work Cited:

Atuahene, Bernadette. “South Africa’s Land Reform Crisis: Eliminating the Legacy of Apartheid.” Foreign Affairs 90.4 (2011): 121-29. Web.

“Bibliography.” Bernadette Atuahene, http://bernadetteatuahene.com/. Accessed 4 November 2017.

“6: Roman Republic.”  Appian, Civil Wars. https://pastinpresenttense.wordpress.com/classics-1110/6-roman-republic/. Accessed  November 2017.


Vicky Lee, Team Hermes

A French Gracci

I read “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic” by Al Alp, which I found through the search terms “Gracci France.” The author, Alp, mainly compared and contrasted an essay written by Herbert Marcuse about Gracchus Babeuf, and Babeuf’s words himself, so I think the article is primarily intended to be read by scholars of history, or people who already have prior knowledge of the time period and who Barbeuf was. My search terms, Gracci and France, go hand and hand in this article. Gracci is another name for Gracchus Babeuf, and the article focuses on his supposed attempt to overthrow the French government. The author talks a lot about Marcuse’s point of view using those two search terms (like how for Marcuse, “the Great French Revolution was to be devoid of working class struggle and only preparatory to a bourgeois stage of history,” which he belives is Barbeuf’s fault).

In our Roman readings we read fragments from Polybius, where he talked about how the world had changed government-wise, and how a monarchy in present day Greece (which would be around 168 BCE) was much different than a monarchy in Ancient Greece. In Alp’s article, he discussed how Marcuse showed “a remarkable ignorance of history. The mass media of XVIII century France was quite different from that of the late XIX century. Advertising in Babeuf’s day was inexistent,” which is why Barbeuf couldn’t have been a propagandist on the level Marcuse accuses him to be. In Polybius’ text, he writes that there is a “cycle of political revolution, the course appointed by nature in which constitutions change, disappear, and finally return to the point from which they started.” Both Alp and Polybius stress the importance of the time period in which something happens, for it all amounts to generational differences.

Proper MLA citation: Alp, Al. “The Redemption of the Gracchi and the Class Nature of the Republic.” Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 25, no. 3, 1995, pp. 397–413.

Camille, Team Diana