Sicily, Slave, Rome, and Haiti

The term that I search for is Sicily Slave Rome Haiti. The article that I choose is “War and conflict”. The correct citation format should be: Ferguson, Rebecca. “War and conflict.” The Handy History Answer Book, 2nd ed., Visible Ink Press, 2006, p. 105+. The Handy Answer Book Series. General OneFile, Accessed 26 Nov. 2017., accessed 26 November. 2017. In this article author did write about Sicily, Rome, Haiti, and slave. Author mention that in Rome republic time, there was a war called Punic War happen between Carthage and Rome in Sicily, and Rome won the war. Where the author mention slave, was in American Civil War section. He talked a lot about how did the American Civil War happen and how it goes. For Haiti, it was only mentioned in world war one section: “Before the war ended in 1918, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua all became supporters of the Allies”. The author somehow connected these term into wars, since they all somehow representing conflict.

I believe this article is for the people who would like to learn about the wars on different time periods and countries.

The most connected part of the article and homework reading will be the Punic war. “Rome’s first overseas war, the First Punic War (264–241), despite initial heavy losses, led to the establishment of the first province, Sicily.” In the article I found did also wrote about Punic War. “the Romans, who had girded their navy for the battle, arrived and drove the Carthaginians out (241 B.C.), conquering Sicily”. This is where the article and homework text related, they both said that Roman defeated Carthaginians and took over the province Sicily at 241 B.C.



Haolin, Team Hephaestus


Slavery was not only in Central America!

“Slavery.” Britannica Online Academic Edition, 2017, pp. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc

In this publication the primary audience would be people who are interested in history, or people that are interested in extra details that happened during slavery. This article sweetened up the history of slaves and gave a historical background on how slaves came about in Greece and Italy. This article also explained how so many other countries owned slaves. For me this article was a bit troubling because its not giving the truth raw. It sugar coated how slaves were treated in Central America. For example ” Slavery was usually, but not always, involuntary.” Maybe in other countries where slaves weren’t as mistreated as central america, slaves would not mind working off their debt. However being a slave in Central America people would get lynched for no reason, and beaten, African Americans would not voluntarily want to be slaves. This is one of the sentences that stood out to me because it just shows how much certain things are glazed over. But furthermore it explains how other countries had slaves such as, China, India, Malabar, Thailand, Japan, Philippines, and so forth. Lastly the article gets into the different protests that occurred in some of the countries that had slavery. One of the famous rebellions we know today is when Haiti gained their independence from the French in 1804, and the famous man who led them who was Toussaint-Louverture. In this article the author does not really connect the key terms, instead it is a lot if historical background on slavery on where it started and how it ended. While sugar coating things but overall capturing the main part of slavery. One connection I can say between these terms was just how slavery was in Rome, and in Sicily.


Can the past be the Future?

The term i searched was “Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” and I chose “The Collapse of Empires”. It seems the targeted audience are people who live in countries that are considered to be “superpowers”. It goes over how some of the greatest empires in all of history at some point collapsed. As stated by Kevin Hartnett “Our country’s political gridlock and economic recession have prompted talk about the end of the American era” is his view that there is even talks about dangers that may happen to America. The economic recession and political gridlock, which is a difficulty to pass laws that appease citizens, are factors that can affect America. This is similar to what had happened to the Romans, “had left Rome’s citizens unwilling to fight for their empire”  which is a type of political gridlock. So already there is a link between the Romans citizens and the American people.

Public distrust toward the government is very critical because if the people who are meant to support, stability and be the backbone of the country can not even place their trust with them that can lead to future backlash. Could what happen to Rome possibly happen to another superpower of today? It seems the intended target is towards the people of powerful countries and to alert them that there trust toward their respective governments are what keeps them afloat. Although it is hard to compare the Roman empire to any country today, there are similarities that can be found between itself and the Superpower countries of today.

In this unit, I realized that it was linked to what we had discussed in Art 1010. We learned how Romans were so fascinated by Greek architecture and sculptures and included them into their own works of art.

-Al-Bishr Askar , Team Hephaestus


Hartnett, Kevin. “The collapse of empires.” Bookmarks, July-Aug. 2010,|A229860880&v=2.1&u=cuny_broo39667&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w&authCount=1

The Roman Republic and Slavery

The terms I entered on my one search were “Sicily”, “slave”, “Rome” and “Haiti”. I came across the article, “The Ghost of Spartacus” by Bulent Diken. The audience that the author is targeting is people who are interested in war and culture. This article explains how humanity is a series of ghosts and how these ghosts have a continuity with the past and the future (Derrida 1994: 138). It deals with answering the question on how to have a conversation with the ghost by focusing on a 1960s film called Spartacus, by Stanley Kubrick.

The film is about the corruption of the Roman Republic and the menial work done by slaves. One rebellious slave named Spartacus is sold to a Gladiator trainer and after he devises a plan to lead the other slaves to rebel and escape to their homelands. A quote which includes both the terms “slave” and “Rome” is:

“The next scene brings us to the Senate in Rome, where we hear how the gladiators are ‘ravaging’ the countryside, ‘forcing’ other slaves to join them, ‘looting’, ‘robbing’, ‘burning’ estates” (Diken 2011: 402).

I chose a quote from “Appian, Civil Wars, 1.7-27” and it says:

At the same time the ownership of slaves brought them great gain from the multitude of their progeny, who increased because  they were exempt from military service. Thus certain powerful men became extremely rich and the race of slaves multiplied throughout the country, while the Italian people dwindled in numbers and strength, being oppressed by penury, taxes, and military service.

This quote relates to the article I read because it talks about the same idea of slaves and their oppression. It is relevant because it supports the fact that slaves are used for attaining “great gain” for the powerful men. These “powerful men” are the Roman Republic in the Spartacus article.

BÜLENT DIKEN (2011) The ghost of Spartacus, Journal of War & Culture
Studies, 4:3, 399-411.



Slaves, History and the Reality of the Present


Black Catholic Theology: A Historical Perspective.

What is the appropriate MLA citation of your search return?

DAVIS, CYPRIAN. “BLACK CATHOLIC THEOLOGY: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.” Theological Studies, vol. 61, no. 4, 2000, p. 656. Academic Accessed 6 Nov. 2017.

Who is the primary intended audience of the publication?

All people that are not aware of the Black Catholics’ community. In particular of the Black Catholic theology.

How does the author connect the search terms one to another?

  •  ”Our general conclusion from a look at the scriptural basis for Black Catholic theology is that our slavery is the foundation of our liberation”.
    Interpretation: The author uses the word ” slavery ” to show that the slavery lived by blacks is the basis of their liberation. In the text the author explains that Christ suffered slavery as blacks have suffered, and that by sharing their suffering they also share his mercy and glorification.
  • ”Roman Catholics, they sought their roots in the early martyrs Saints Perpetua and Felicity; they identified with the African theologian, St. Augustine and his mother; they knew of St. Cyril of Alexandria in Egypt; and they mention St. Benedict the Moor, not a saint of the early Church but a son of African slaves in Sicily, a contemporary of Martin Luther”.
  • The only word that the author does not use of my search is ”Haiti” because the author talks about the black community in general, without reference to a country in specific, with the exception of the United States, which is mentioned.

Quote from the ancient texts relevant to my selected publication. 

”Not only in political life should the powerful behave humanely towards those who are of humble condition, but also in private life the right-minded should not be too harsh
on their slaves.”

 I can connect this sentence with the article because the class reading talks in great detail about the situation that the slaves experienced during those times. In the article that I chose it also referrers to the situations lived by the slaves. In the article it says: ” it is good to remember that freedom in the historical context is not to uni-vocal term either in the Ancient world or in the Middle Ages. Only the kings and their nobles were truly in a condition of freedom.” then explaining that for that reason all blacks are blessed, because after having suffered as much as Christ did on earth, they are protected and special to God. The article says that they who were slaves have a different and special mission on earth.

Jamilex Dominguez. Team Mercury.

Slavery Has Always Been Brutal And Always Will Be

Article Title – Slavery and Inhumanity: Keith Bradley’s Legacy on Slavery in New Testament Studies
MLA Citation:

Harrill, J. Albert. “Slavery and Inhumanity: Keith Bradley’s Legacy on Slavery in New Testament Studies.” Biblical Interpretation, vol. 21, no. 4/5, Oct. 2013, pp. 506-514. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1163/15685152-2145P0005.

Saying that ‘Slavery has always been brutal and always will be’ is a statement that could not be proven truer in the scope of Professor Keith Bradley’s analysis of slavery throughout the ages in the article, Slavery and Inhumanity . Regarding slavery in Rome, a common perception is that slavery was ‘better’ there than it had been in any other parts of the world that practiced slavery. This is known as the Mainz Academy analysis. Though really, when someone is a slave, how could that kind of reality ever be something that is ‘good’? Bradley bases his research against refuting this widespread claim. In actuality, slavery in Rome was no better than o any tother part of the world and it laid the groundwork of slavery in come. Contrary to popular belief, slaves in Rome were not treated ‘nicely’ but beaten and described as being property, just like any other place that practiced slavery. In other words, the audience of this article, is anyone who dared to claim that slavery in Rome was better than any other part of the world. Just like any other group who took part in that sort of systematic slavery, demoting humans to the level of mere animals, Rome was terribly inhumane and increadibly cruel.

When making my search, I chose the words, ‘Sicily, Slave, Rome and Haiti‘. In the backdrop of the article, these words all interlock  perfectly. According to the article, ” The world history of slavery reveals slave revolts to be extremely rare occurrences; only four outright slave wars are known: one in modern Haiti, two in ancient Sicily, and one led by Sparatcus in ancient Italy “. Notice that both Sicily and Haiti are both named as sites for slave revolts. The comparison between the two gives of cleare picture of the state of slavery in Rome. Anyone versed in history to some competent degreee knows of the slave revolts in Haiti, led by Toussaint L’Overture, and in turn the horror of slavery in Haiti, which led to said revolt. Such a comparison being made between Haiti and Sicily demonstrates that slavery was indeed a much hated thing in Rome – a cruel and disgusting thing – forcing slaves there to revolt in one the few slave revolts ever recored in history.

In the beginning of Diodorus, The Library, fragments from books 34/35, it is said ” But their masters (the slaves), were very strict and severe with them, and took no care to provide either necessary food or clothing for them, so that most of. Them were forced to rob and steal , to get these necessities; so that all places were full of slaughters and murders…” This quote refers to one of the roles of slaves in Sicily of Rome. Slaves were made to act as shepherds for large herds of cattle and practice ‘Latfundia’, in other words, Plantation Farming. This was a part of a contract of sorts that was established, in which the slaves would gain their freedom after a certain amount of time from their masters. However, the reality being that slave masters often lived far away from the sites of herding and farming, in combination with the growing realization on the part of slaves, that they would never gain their freedom because of this reason, led the slaves to start to revolt. This connects directly to the examples of slave reovlts given in Bradley’s assertions. It only strengthens his claim, that Rome was no different from other slave capitals – slavery has always been brutal, and always will be.

Skaie Cooper, Team Ares

Slavery in Greece

I searched up Sicily Rome “Slave rebellion” “United States” on the Brooklyn Library website and came across an article called “SLAVES, STORIES, AND CULTS: Conflict Resolution between Masters and Slaves in Ancient Greece” by Sara Forsdyke. This article talks about slavery and a slave rebellion on the island of Chios. Forsdyke explains the two sides of this event. On one hand, the slave rebellion can be seen as a “heroic [attempt by a] slave over his masters”. But the event also raises the argument of how such rebellions can be controlled by masters if they “treat their slaves humanely”.

Although the author doesn’t connect the search terms together, this article can relate back to the text, Diodorus, where it states, “Those whom fate has placed in a lowly position will gladly yield to their superiors in honor and glory, but if they are denied the kindness which they deserve, they revolt against the men who act like cruel despots.” The Romans governed the slaves using fear. But fear can motivate the slaves to revolt. Similarly, the slaves in ancient Greece rebelled because they weren’t treated “humanely”. Perhaps if both ancient Greece and the Romans had treated their slaves better, there wouldn’t have been a rebellion.

Aisha · Team Ares

MLA Citation

Sara Forsdyke. “SLAVES, STORIES, AND CULTS Conflict Resolution between Masters and Slaves in Ancient Greece.” Common Knowledge, vol. 21, no. 1, 2015, pp. 19–43.


Slavery in Rome

The terms ” Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” had best interested me and I chose the article named Slavery and Inhumanity. The MLA citation for this article was Harrill, J. Albert. “Slavery and Inhumanity: Keith Bradley’s Legacy on Slavery in New Testament Studies.” Biblical Interpretation, vol. 21, no. 4/5, Oct. 2013, pp. 506-514. EBSCOhost, . The primary audience was intended for the readers and scholars who were interested in slavery and how it was depicted in New Testament studies. The author J. Albert Harrill had gathered most of his information  from a lecture by a well known scholar known as Keith Bradley. The author talks about slavery as whole and goes more in depth when it comes to Rome however does not really connect with the term Haiti.  The author states ” that this process of enslavement was not random but served the interests of the slaveholders as a recognized mechanism of social control intentionally designed to “animalize” the slave, due in part to the Roman rejection of Aristotle’s ideas about natural slavery.” This shows that the author compares the slavery to descriptive words like animals and relates it back to Aristotle and Rome.  Harrill also states this  ”  recreates three key elements in the Roman enslavement process: (1) becoming a beast of burden; (2) suffering repeated beatings and randomly inflicted violence, including sexual violence;and (3) being sold and resold numerous times as a passive commodity. ” This also shows that he gives a visual idea of what was going on during slavery and how it brutal it actually was giving numerous examples of what took place.  This relates to the Roman Republic that we had studied for homework.  In the Roman Republic it states “the slaves fought a battle with Lucius Hypsaeus, who had come from Rome and commanded eight thousand Sicilians. In this fight the rebels won the day.” This shows that you can only push slaves to a certain point otherwise they will rebel and no longer take that kind of brutal treatment. This shows that they came together to fight for their freedom and do whatever it takes to reach their victory.

The Problem of the Republic

The article “A Brief History of Wine in Spain”, by Stefan K. Estreicher, is intended for historians and students learning about the history of Spain. The author uses the terms Sicily, Rome, Slave and Haiti in his article by mentioning how the Roman history of taking over Sicily led to the rise of the wine and slave industry in Spain.

“The first Punic war (264–241 BC) gives the Romans control over Sicily and much of the maritime trade in the central and western Mediterranean” (Estreicher 211).

This quote showed the control that Rome had over Sicily. Later on in the article, it mentions that the first wine distillery was established in a Sicilia estate. The newly discovered fields were in need of a workforce, thus the subject of slavery appears. A king makes it legal to have large scale slave trading across the ocean, which leads to slavery in Haiti. However, a change in crown leads to the start of abolishing slavery.

“In the Americas, Haiti declares independence and abolishes slavery (1804)” (Estreicher 222)

Estreicher, Stefan K. “A Brief History of Wine in Spain.” European Review, vol. 21, no.               2, 2013, pp. 209-239, Social Science Premium Collection, https://login.ez-                                                                                                                    url=,                           doi:

In the section titled, “Roman Imperialists and Conquest”, the same details on Roman take over of Sicily was mentioned.

“The overseas conquests not only supplied the capital to purchase large estates, but also the slave labour needed to introduce new methods of farming, designed to provide absentee landlords with an income from cash crops. The new methods gave rise to further problems in the shape of a series of slave revolts, most notable in Sicily (132 and 103-101)” 

This can be compared to the slavery in Haiti and the fight they put up to abolish it.

– Fariah, Team Hermes

Slavery’s Deep History

After searching for “Sicily Slave Rome Haiti” on the Brooklyn CUNY library website, there was an article that caught my attention. In Slavery and Inhumanity: Keith Bradley’s Legacy on Slavery in New Testament Studies by J. Albert Harrill, I found that his studies would benefit anyone that wanted to know about slavery and how it reveals the unsettling and dark truth history tries to leave behind. Harill explains that under Roman expansion, there were very few slave revolts, which would seem surprising to many because anyone being held against their will and forced to do labor would do anything for their freedom. The slaves that were under ancient Roman rule learned to coexist with their masters through fear of losing their life. They only revolted if they were violently abused. Romans did not have a racial justification as to why they enslaved people, but their harsh and violent punishments inflicted fear upon the slaves made it easier to tame them. By dehumanizing them and viewing them as animals, they were able to control their mentality and make them work for them with little to no objections. In the articles it states, “The world history of slavery reveals slave revolts to be extremely rare occurrences; only four outright slave wars are known: one in modern Haiti, two in ancient Sicily, and one led by Spartacus in ancient Italy. Moreover, the ancient revolts occurred in a very limited time span in the context of massive military expansion and political upheaval in the late Roman Republic.” (Pg.509) Slavery not only allowed for the Romans to expand on their land, military, and political ideals in society, but it also made them progress and grow economically. It gave slave owners power because they provided a cheap labor source that made exponential profits.

In the ancient text of Diodorus, book 33 states, “Those whom fate has placed in a lowly position will gladly yield to their superiors in honour and glory, but if they are denied the kindness which they deserve, they revolt against the men who act like cruel despots.” Though the slaves were forced to coexist with the Romans out of fear, there is a certain point where they can no longer accept being violently oppressed. There were few slave revolts because they were afraid of the consequences. Romans thought that by dehumanizing and abusing their slaves, it would lead to obedience, but they failed to acknowledge that pain could also give them strength to rebel. It is not an uncommon thing to see how hate can become a driven passion for survival. Diodorus shows how ancient Romans handled slavery and Harill explains the technique used to keep them in check. Both show the underlying purpose as to why each side acted the way they did and how slavery in and of itself is a cruel, dark, and inhumane part of history that will never be forgotten.

MLA citation:
Harrill, J. Albert, “Slavery and Inhumanity: Keith Bradley’s Legacy on Slavery in New Testament Studies”, The Ohio State University, USA, Biblical Interpretation 21-4-5 (2013) 506-514

 Mary H., Team Vulcan

Biblical Interpretation of Slavery


I searched a term Sicily Rome “Slave rebellion” “the United States” and I found a lot of different sources. One that caught my attention was a chapter from the book Biblical Interpretation called Slavery and Inhumanity by J. Albert Harrill. The subject of this chapter is about examining Roman slavery as part of the wider history of world slavery. The author also refers to emperor Augustus and Constantine as part of Christianity, which makes a connection to our Art History class, when we talked about the beginning of the Christianity and Constantine and the sculptore of Augustus – emperor. The primary intended audience for it will be people who would like to explore more about slavery in Rome in a Biblical point of view that author is making. The writer makes the connection between slavery and refers to the wars by saying “ The world history of slavery reveals slave revolts to be extremely rare occurrences; only four outright slave wars are known: one in modern Haiti, two in ancient Sicily, and one led by Spartacus in ancient Italy.” (Harrill 509), and then gives us more details about it. He also makes the connection between the United States and slavery “ancient slavery was relatively humane and so wholly unlike modern slavery in the New World” (Harrill 508), and by saying New World her refers to the United States. The reading that was assigned earlier for us and is connected to this source is Aristotle and Xenophon, On the Spartan Constitution, because both authors refer to Sparta. Aristotle and Xenophon say “To be present, he selected the keenest of the prefects, and gave to each the command of a division. And so at Sparta, the boys are never without a ruler”.

MLA citation:
Harrill, J. Albert. “Slavery and Inhumanity.” Biblical Interpretation, vol. 21, no. 4-5, 2013, pp. 506–514.

Edyta, team Aphrodite