Sheepshead Bay Mural

As I got off the train at Sheepshead bay station, I walked passed this mural and it caught my eye. This mural is based off of Emmons Avenue near Sheepshead Bay station and it reminded me of modern art pieces. I believe this is a modernistic art piece because of its difference compared to the Classical and Hellenistic period.  For example, the art work produced during the Classical and Hellenistic period it featured elements that made the art work naturalistic and realistic such as using linear perspective and choosing different colors to use in order to create a effect of depth in a painting. Similar to the Sheepshead Bay mural you can see that the figures featured in this art piece has depth. Viewers who look at this art work is able to see that figures begins to become smaller as they look further into the background. Adding on to why I believe this is a modernistic art piece is because it features figures of everyday people. Similar to Edouard Manet “Olympia” it features a figure of a female that doesn’t resemble religious practices and would be considered as an every day type of figure. Also, It doesn’t contain elements of a idealized nude body which is featured in Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic period. Although the Sheepshead bay mural is a more modernistic art piece it is similar to a Baroque art piece named “Elevation of the Cross” by Peter Paul Ruben, the Sheepshead Bay mural is separated into several parts but it maintains as a whole art work. But overall, the Sheepshead Bay mural has features that makes me believe that it was inspired by modernistic art work.

Don’t tell your son yet

Galanes, Philip. “ I Learned My Teenage Son Is Being Bullied. Should I tell Him?”  Social Q’s, The New York Times. 8 Dec.2016

Dear Anonymous Mom,

I do not think you should directly approach him by stating his problem. As a parent, it must be hard to communicate to a son that is considered a freak. Moreso, having your son open up to you is a big struggle. It may be safer to tell him about your own personal problems and gradually let him open up. It doesn’t take a day to do this, basic trust has to be formed. I hope that the girl that told you this can help you out. She may seem concerned herself, so you should speak to her. Maybe you should have a leader that your son can look up to. At this era, having a figure to look up to becomes important in how your kids will grow up to be. In fact, maybe you are lacking a male figure in the family. Make sure he is aware that he can trust you with basic emotional and mental aspects of his problems. If you cannot seen to be in touch with him, make sure the girl can properly talk to him. You can even invite her over to dinner and your son can get to know her. It’s a great way to let him open up to someone else besides the mom. Find different alternatives for your son to go to! Let him be free and make sure he can trust you!


Question Time!

Cindy T., via Facebook, Wednesday night

1. Are you comfortable if I ask you some questions about you ethnicity and origins?  Can I write about your answers on a public class blog?
– yeah sure.

2. Do you identify yourself with an country or ethnicity beyond the United States of America?  If so, which one?
– Chinese, from China

3. How have you learned about the origins/history/past/importance of that place? (If they feel no strong connection to other place or identity, then ask them to talk about being American.)
– A little but not very much because my parents never told me about their life in china. Well as an American, I feel like I am conflicted between what I am known as, Chinese or American. Often I get confused if I should even include myself such title. I want to be able to personally express my self as an individual, not by race.

4.Is there one person, maybe a hero or ‘wiseman’ or king or law-giver, that is important to your people–someone people tell stories about, maybe legendary, maybe true?  Can you tell me a story?
-Yes, theres a monkey king. He is famous in the Chinese mythical tales of the gods and power. He restores order when someone consumes too much power in a china. The Chinese monkey is symbolized as wise.

5. What values do you think that story teaches?  Are those values important in the traditions of your people?  how?
– I was taught this story from a young age. It taught me that all evil must be taken away and if there is no balance, we should take initiative in balancing such action from happening.

Cindy has been told about the great monkey that has been taken as a historical context. Despite not knowing what she is identified as, she know what she is. Most importantly, the great monkey can be a great example of Vergil’s Aeneid, it state, ” …will inherit the line and build the walls of Mars and after his own name, call his people Roma” I felt this quote has correlation to the great monkey because it both talks about prosperity in a country. These nationalistic view becomes an essence in obtaining trust by the people. I hope Cindy learns to obtain a different value of what she is.

Ahmed A, via text msg, Wednesday Afternoon.

  1. Are you comfortable if I ask you some questions about you ethnicity and origins?  Can I write about your answers on a public class blog?’
    – mhm
  2. Do you identify yourself with an country or ethnicity beyond the United States of America?  If so, which one?
    – Pakistan, Islam
  3. How have you learned about the origins/history/past/importance of that place? (If they feel no strong connection to other place or identity, then ask them to talk about being American.)
    – Yeah a little. I am more Americanized because I came to NY at a young age. Uhh my family heard about dreams coming true and having a better life in the US so we moved.
  4. Is there one person, maybe a hero or ‘wiseman’ or king or law-giver, that is important to your people–someone people tell stories about, maybe legendary, maybe true?  Can you tell me a story?
    – The father in a family household. My dad take care of everything. Having a dad must be important in the Islamic culture because it shows masculinity for the children and respect the values of our own culture.
  5. What values do you think that story teaches?  Are those values important in the traditions of your people?  how?
    -They tell me that I must have a family when I grow up. That I must be a good dad too. Having a dad to son/ daughter relationship is important as the child grows up. They can have problems if they do not have a father.

    Ahmed seems more of a chill guy. He wants to be able to communicate not the religious value of his culture, but what he has known by practicing islam. I do not see any similarities between the readings of Rome and Ahmed’s story. However, I can say that having a powerful and strong leader does obtain the continuation of a great country.

Gao J. via Facebook, Tuesday night

  1. Are you comfortable if I ask you some questions about you ethnicity and origins?  Can I write about your answers on a public class blog?
    – Yes I am comfortable if you ask away.
  2. Do you identify yourself with an country or ethnicity beyond the United States of America?  If so, which one?
    – Yes you may and you have my every permission to do so. I see myself as Chinese American, so I guess Chinese ethnicity.
  3. How have you learned about the origins/history/past/importance of that place? (If they feel no strong connection to other place or identity, then ask them to talk about being American.)
    -I have learned about the different Dynasties and the many trades and wars that makes China what it is today, but I don’t really remember it. I have learned about the history of America, and I can tell you one thing: that our history was all sorts of messed up.
  4. Is there one person, maybe a hero or ‘wiseman’ or king or law-giver, that is important to your people–someone people tell stories about, maybe legendary, maybe true?  Can you tell me a story?
    – I don’t know anyone who is important to “my people” (you mean like the rest of Chinese population in China?) I do know a story (but not really a story :/) that has captured the hearts of some Chinese people though, and it is the Gospel 🙂
  5. What values do you think that story teaches?  Are those values important in the traditions of your people?  how?
    – That Jesus has come down to Earth to release all of our chains from sin and bring grace upon us. The values are important to those who know Him but also for those who don’t know Him.

    I found Gao’s story interesting because religious believes was not a powerful century for it. Despite that, Gao’s religion seems to motivate him by what he has learned about the Gospel. In relations to the Roman’s text, Aeneas can be best in relationship to God. ” Aeneas puts in here with a bare seven warship saved from his whole fleet.” This quote shows that Aeneas has given hope to these people that were in need of rescue. God also saved those from their sins in order to restore grace upon us. I was very glad to have heard Gao’s answer in response to these questions.




This statue is from the New York City Metropolitan Museum, and it was made in ca. 4500-4000 B.C. The statue is called Marble female figure. This statue is not Aphrodite because it was created from a different culture, which most likely have different religion, but in a way she is because they both have similar statuses. Such as, Aphrodite is the goddess of fertility, love, and beauty. This statue has full legs and buttocks, which also indicates fertility. They both have similarities when it comes to child making. However, in the terms of their physical appearance, it is quite different because according to pictures from google Aphrodite looks slim, and ethereal. The statue mainly have curves around on its buttocks, breasts, and waist. Honestly, the statue looks like it would do a better job bearing a child. In the translated version of Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite by William Blake Tyrrell, Aphrodite loves to get gods and goddess involved with mortal women and men, and in a way it shows her power in fertility because it is getting goddesses and female mortals pregnant.

  • “…she mingled gods with mortal women who bore mortal sons to immortals and that she mixed goddesses with mortal men…” (lines 50-53). Aphrodite’s sneaky behavior gets god and goddess involved with mortals, and most of the time demi gods (half human, half god) are created because of her influence. She eventually get into trouble because of these tactics. Zeus messes with her, then she ended up having intercourse with a mortal and giving birth to Aeneas.

Becky, Team Hera



I took this picture a few weeks ago when I visited the MET museum for my final paper. The title of this painting is Fleur de Lis, and it is painted by Robert Reid in ca. 1895-1900. I found this painting interesting because the colors are not blended fully together, and it somehow makes it pretty. Also, minimum colors are used in this work. The medium used for this work is oil on canvas, which means that the texture of the paint can vary depending on the artists’ purpose.

Before the creation of this painting was Paul Cezanne’s, The Basket of Apples. Cezanne’s work is considered to be a post-impressionism art style, a style that is against academic paintings or paintings with the classical traditional art style. Robert Reid “…was among the founding members of the Ten American Painters, a loosely defined group of French-trained artists associated with impressionism” ( He was most likely influenced by Cezanne’s post-impressionism art style. Some features of impressionism are the way the colors are not fully blended, the visible brush strokes, and the tiny hint of abstract within the leaves.

Becky, Team Hera

Get Your Children Vaccinated!

  • “Can I Spread the Word About an Unvaccinated Child?”

Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “Can I Spread the Word About an Unvaccinated Child?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 27 Sept. 2017,®ion=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=10&pgtype=collection.

Dear Kwame Anthony Appiah,

Greetings, I am Aulus Gordianus Longius (Jiahui Gong) and I am writing to you today to provide you some tips on what you should do in your situation. to sum up what you said in your advice column, your’e in a sticky situation where you have to decide whether if you should inform others of a child that’s not vaccinated or should you keep it to yourself because the parent of the unvaccinated child wants you to keep it to yourself. The decision should be obvious, and that is to inform other parents and school staffs about this problem. As you said in your advice column by choosing not to vaccinate the child, the parent is putting her child in a greater risk of catching a infection or virus. Therefore just because the child may not catch infections or virus during his or her early life, it doesn’t mean he or her wouldn’t encounter these problems in the future. Vaccines shouldn’t be seen as a threat because the chances of a child being “harmed” by vaccines is extremely slim. For example, Marcus Aurelius he said “They wintered at
Aquileia, where the plague broke out; the praetorian prefect was a victim,
and Galen, the imperial physician, refused to stay. At Verus’ insistence, he
and Marcus also left in January 169, but Verus died of a stroke.” (Aurelius) Although, studies doesn’t show that vaccines is able to completely prevent strokes and heart attacks, it has shown that it is able to decrease the chances of it. Therefore, Verus could’ve survived if vaccines were presented at the time. But, since he wasn’t able to receive vaccinations it resulted to his death from a stroke. Another example is Junvenal, he states “But worse than any physical decline is the dementia. It doesn’t remember the names of slaves or recognise the face of a friend who dined with him the previous evening or the children he fathered and raised himself. You see, in a cruel will, he keeps his own children from becoming his heirs and leaves everything to Phiale.” (Juvenal) Once again by receiving vaccinations, illnesses like dementia could be prevented. Similar to Aurelius case, by receiving vaccinations at a early age it helps decreases the chances of getting the illness. Now I am not saying by receiving vaccinations can fully prevent these illnesses but I rather have a lower chance of preventing it than nothing. Moving on, because vaccinations was present at the time all these negative events happened. All in all, I highly suggest you to spread the word about this situation to other parents in the neighborhood. Just because the other children playing with the unvaccincated child isn’t getting infected at the moment doesn’t indicate that they wont be infected in the future. Thus, it is better to address this problem before it becomes something more serious.

Sincerely, Aulus Gordianus Longius (Jiahui Gong)

Lady looking at the mirror


I found this painting while walking around the Met Museum. The title of this painting is The Penitent Magdalen, and it is painted by George de La Tour in ca. 1640. This painting features a woman who is a sinner, or a courtesan. She is looking at a mirror while holding a skull at the same time, and the only source of light is the candlelight.

The reason why I chose this paining is because it looks very intriguing and interesting. The contrast of lightness and darkness pulls the viewers in. I would relate this painting to Caravaggio, Calling of St. Matthew because both artists uses the chiaroscuro technique to focus on the main subject. Both paintings are connected to Christ and their spiritual enlightenment (the light that is directed towards them represents enlightenment).

Some differences between The Penitent Magdalen and Calling of St. Matthew is the mood and movement. The mood in George de La Tour’s painting is quiet, dark, and peaceful. In contrast, the mood in Caravaggio’s painting is unexpectedness and curious. The movement probably play a role in creating the mood because the woman is sitting still while looking at the mirror, and the men are counting money and focused on different things.

Careful Sherlock Holmes!

In the book, “The Final Problem : A Sherlock Holmes Graphic Novel,” I found a letter by Dr John H. Watson that has referred back to the ides of March. In the book it states,

“Beware the ides of March,” Caesar was warned. And the middle of march 1886 was marked by major changes.”

This section, refers to the ides of march that allude a negative feeling caused by a threat. The author hopes to tell the reader that ides of march is a date on the calendar marked for catastrophe, especially by “major changes” contributing to the changes in the weather. Such threat would help the reader know it is a negative phrase as one should be warned by Watsons emotional fear.

“…Caesar dreamed he was raised aloft upon the clouds and grasped the hand of Jupiter. 2 Moreover, omens not a few and not without significance came to him: the arms of Mars…made a great noise at night, and the doors of the chamber where he slept opened of their own accord.”

This section that I took out from Cassious Dios is like the letter by Dr John H. Watson by alluding the change of weather as a symbol of danger. Cassious Dios demonstrates a threatening situation for Caesar by having bad dreams, having noises at night to indicate a starling situation, and having the chamber doors open by the gust of wind. Comparing to Dr John H. Watson’s letter, there was a dramatic change in his environment. There were meter shower and flashes of the red planet was visible from London.

Kopl, Petr. The Final Problem. Andrews UK. 15. September. 2015.

The José Bonifacio de Andrade e Silva

D596A852-2F89-4225-8EC1-7362766A34EE.jpeghb_32.11.1When I was walking around 42nd street near Bryant Park, I spotted this statue called the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva created by Clark and Rapuano. Usually, I wouldn’t pay any attention to statues like this, mainly because I wouldn’t know any of the history behind these statues. But, something about this statue today that caught my attention despite knowing its history. So I took a moment to take a closer look at the statue. The more I looked at it, I started to see some similarities between this statue and the Marble statue of Kouros. For example, the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva feet position is similar to the Kouros where one foot is ahead of another. Though the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva seems to contain a slight contrapposto position, the way it stands up looks similar to the Kouros. However, some features that differs between these two statues would be that the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva is more realistic compared to the Kouros. For example, if you look closer at the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva’s face you can see it have creases/ wrinkles on its face. Also its hand position is different compared to the Kouros, the Kouros have both hands clenched in a fist on its thigh while the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva have one arm down and one arm bent. Also the material used to create these sculptures were different, the Kouros was created with marble while the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva was created with bronze. All in all, the Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva statue have features that could be found in the archaic and classical period because of its lack of potential of movement but its realism feature on its face.

Are your Friends Really Your Friends?

  • Devil’s Casino : Friendship, Betrayal, and the High Stakes Games Played Inside Lehman Brothers quote

“You think you would have liked Chris Pettit — but by the end you would not have liked him. He became someone else.” — John Cecil.

  • MLA Citation

Ward, Vicky. Devil’s Casino : Friendship, Betrayal, and the High Stakes Games Played Inside Lehman Brothers, Wiley, 2010. ProQuest Ebook Central,
Created from brooklyn-ebooks on 2017-11-24 19:30:11.

  • Summary of the text

In the text, A weakness that needed to be fixed was Lehman’s equities and investments banking units since it was doing very poorly compared to their fixed income. In order to do so, it was necessary to fire some of the employees whom were in the higher rankings. Chris Pettit a stubborn and biased employee refused to give up his position and defended other employees whom were his friends. This lead to, Dick Fuld, the head of the corporation to persuade Pettit’s friends to betray on him; which lead to Chris Pettit being fired from the corporation.

The text corresponds with the word term “Ides of March” because it is commonly known as the deadline to settle debts. Adding on, when people are faced with debts at their deadline, they would have to do whatever it takes in order to settle it. Therefore, the text is related to Ides of March because Dick Fuld had to get rid of Chris Pettit and other higher ranked employees in order to move forward with their corporation goals. through the text, the author would suggest that the Ides of March would not be a good thing. Reasoning for this is because of the madness and chaos it created in the corporation mainly internally.

  • The account of Ides of March in Cassius Dio quote

“When he had reached this point, the men who were plotting against him hesitated no longer, but in order to embitter even his best friends against him, they did their best to traduce him, finally saluting him as king, a name which they often used also among themselves.”

This quote is able to compliment the text because this situation is the similar to each other since both involve persuading the best friend into betraying Julius Caesar and Chris Pettit. Adding on this is able to help the text connect to the Ides of March due to how similar it was to situation Caesar and Pettit was in. Due to their unwillingness to step down from their position, the people had to figure out a way to do so in order to move forward. Thus, by persuading

Brooklyn Bridge



I took this picture around March while walking on the bridge with my mom and sister. While taking this picture, I thought that the bridge from the center point of view looked really nice. This is similar to the lesson about one linear perspective that we learned in class.

The elements of linear perspective are the vanishing point, the horizon line, and the orthogonals. The vanishing point is all the way at the top, near the center, and it is circled in green. The horizontal line that goes straight to the vanishing point is lined in purple. The orthogonals are lined in yellow, they are all diagonals that lead towards the vanishing point.

62nd Station


During a rainy day, I found myself waiting for the N train at 62nd street. As I was looking around, I saw colums being connected by voussoirs. Unlike the Romans, these voussoirs did not have a keystone but just a wide semicircle that connects each columns. “Tudor arch” is what they call this wide arch. Back then, the material made for voussoirs were stones because it was an easy material to find. Now, we use cement which holds the shape of a semicircle without a keystone. As you can see, there is no keystone in this voussoirs which shows advancement in material and form of architecture. It doesn’t have a different function because it’s supposed to hold up the colums just like the Romans. However nowadays you see less often the use of voussoirs because we use plain platforms to hold bug buildings. There are many buildings which incorporates such arches such as the navel in the Santa Sabina and the window which are carved as a voussoirs.

Grace Church

union square

Whenever I walk home on this route I would always see this tall, and structured church. The church in this picture is called Grace Church, it is located near Union Square and it takes up a whole block, this is just a picture of one of its columns.


This is a picture from google and if I were to compare it to an architecture I learned in class it would be most similar to the Basilica of Santa Sabina, except without all the arches, and with more benches. Both buildings have a long nave that leads to the main centerpiece, and both have clerestory windows that provide lighting in the building. I have been in the church once and I remember how blue the interior was because of the tinted windows, it was really cool. It was clear that there is a difference between the exterior of Grace Church and Basilica of Santa Sabina. The church is much more dramatic compared to the simple Basilica.

South Africa’s Government Major Impact on Citizens

The value of ownership in an individual’s land were significant not only currently but also hundreds or years ago. Today, in South Africa, the government are not allowing a fair share of land owned by the rights of its citizens. More so, the government and high class(Whites) are taking smallholders ownership. This alludes to the article, “Livelihoods after Land Reform in South Africa” in which it tells the immense control by the power by containing and manipulating its people by property. I was able to find this article under Onesearch in the Brooklyn College Library website: Gracchi “Land Reform” Africa.

The intended audience of this publications is for ignorant individuals or people who are unaware of what is happening now in South Africa specifically. The economic cost of such low growth is the government. Issues underlining the qualities and support of a smallholder agriculture by LSCF, who does not accept or make changes in their system. For example, as stated, “… the fundamental problem is the South African state’s stubborn commitment to the LSCF model of agriculture, notwithstanding the rhetorical embrace of smallholder agriculture in some policy documents”. This statement applies in unequal share of money distribution within their country.

The author does not connect the search terms one to another. More so it encompasses the link between power officials vs the lower class and its significant role in the economy. We can see such unbalance in government power in the article, ” South Africa’s ‘dualistic’ agrarian structure comprises around 35,000 large-scale, mostly white-owned commercial farms, occupying the majority of the country’s agricultural land”. As the majority of the owners were white, there was a lack of ownership and even culture. Comparing such culture, in Rome, the power of the people were limited but that didn’t stop in a systematic change. Unlike South Africa, going against the government would have caused serious issues.

Unlike South Africa, Roman plebeians could help the poor because they suffered the most. They have accomplished a lot that benefited the lower class as shown, “Other gains included the abolishment of debt-bondage in 326, access to public land, and allotments of conquered territory for the poorer citizens. The alleviation of the burdens of the poor ended the plebeian struggle as a radical movement.” The government did not make a change but rather it was the people who did. In South Africa, the government and high class took many positions of the smallholders.

Aliber, Michael. “Livelihoods after Land Reform in South Africa.” N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2012. <;


Polybius: A Man of Action?

  • MLA Citation:

Herold, David. “Morison, Samuel Eliot 1887-1976.” 1979, pp. 479–500.|CX1381600032&v=2.1&it=r&sid=exlibris

  • The search word i searched was “Polybius ‘Thomas Jefferson'” and the full text I decided to select was written on a American Historian named Samuel Eliot Morison. The full text is based on the life of Samuel Eliot Morison including stories about his background and his works.
  •  The primary audience this full text seem to be intended for is mainly for teens and adults since it’s a lengthy text that speaks on Morison’s life. Adding on, this can be directed for students in college since this text is a scholarly article that can be found at Brooklyn college library onesearch.

The author is able to connect with the words searched by connecting the life of Samuel Eliot Morison with Polybius as historians. During the text Herold stated:

“Morison’s history of the U.S. Navy, a labor of twenty years, gave him the opportunity to realize the injunction of Polybius, that a historian should be a man of action. Of all his works it drew the greatest comment and criticism. It confounds the categories into which the separate varieties of history have been divided within the professionalized history writing of the twentieth century. It is an official history that escaped committee authorship and the imprimatur of a review board, and came to command professional respect and have a wide audience. It is contemporary history that draws together official, scholarly, and popular history.” (Herold, 492)

This is implying that during the time when Morison was serving in the
U.S Navy, he was able to understand what Polybius was trying to implement. Polybius was a man of action. Therefore by saying a historian should be a man of action, it’s indicating that Morison has learned from Polybius to not sit around and speak on something rather he should be taking action and keep his word about something.

In the Extracts of Polybius, fragments from book 6 it stated:

“For it is evident that we must regard as the best constitution a combination of all these three varieties, since we have had proof of this not only theoretically but by actual experience, Lycurgus having been the first to draw up a constitution — that of Sparta — on this principle.”

Indicating that Polybius was a man of action. He doesn’t only speak on the three varieties of the constitution Kingship, Aristocracy, and Democracy. He takes action by suggesting it would be best to combine all three constitution together for the ideal constitution. He supports his claim by implying how successful the actual experience of combining all three constitution was, therefore this shows that Polybius was a man of action since there was proof provided in order to back up his statement.

Polybius and the Constitution

In this blog post, I searched the term, Polybius “United States” constitution and I chose the article that appeared first on the list which was, “Polybius and the Constitution” it is written by Gilbert Chinard. The writer actually has written a lot about the relations between Polybius and the American constitution, like how the power of the government was split into different powers. Gilbert Chinard sends a message to his readers that Polybius’ records of the Roman government are important. He wrote about the creation of the constitution and how the founding fathers used ideas from Polybius. His ancient works had some influence in the constitution, “…best legislators of all agree…it will be an eternal rule in politics among every free people, that there is a balance of power to be carefully held by every state within itself” (Chinard 42). The power Swift is talking about in Chinard’s article is about the absolute power within the states, he is saying how the power would be destructive if it is placed in one state. Polybius also notes how the Roman government splits its power into three different categories in aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy, “…the force of each being neutralized by that of the others, neither of them should prevail and outbalance another, but that the constitution should remain…in a state of equilibrium” (Polybius 10). Rome had a type of government where the power is not centralized but split into three different categories, and it is one of the reasons why this nation was able to prevail for so long.

Work Cited

Chinard, Gilbert. “Polybius and the American Constitution.” Journal of the History of Ideas 1.1 (1940): 38-58. Brooklyn College. Web. 4 Nov. 2017. <;.

Becky, Team Hera

Fasce with Team Hera

Fasces in front of Federal Hall
For those who stayed behind, Prof Yarrow explained where exactly the fasce was and its significance. Prof Yarrow has said that it stands for symbolism of status and nobility. Fasces are usually made from a bunch of wood tucked together to form a barrel of wood. By the way, there is a bathroom in the basement of federal hall! There were also fasces found in front of the City Bank. One looked like a soldier and the other one looked like a leader. There was engravings that said ” FANEION”.

Alexander the Great is indeed Great

Michelle L., Friend, 18, Manhattan her home

Q1: Do you know who Alexander the Great was?

A1: He was the king of Ancient Greece.

Q2: What do you know about him?

A2: I don’t really know much about him.

Q3: Where did you learn about him?

A3: Global history class in 9th grade.

Amy C., Sister, 20, Home

Q1: Do you know who Alexander the Great was?

A1: Heard him name before, maybe a conqueror.

Q2: What do you know about him?

A2: Nothing much.

Q3: Where did you learn about him?

A3: History class in high school.

Christina D., Friend, 18, Home through phone

Q1: Do you know who Alexander the Great was?

A1: Yes.

Q2: What do you know about him?

A2: Mostly forgot but he’s some empire dude.

Q3: Where did you learn about him?

A3: World History 6th grade?


The three responses I got from my friends and family were all kind of similar. They said that Alexander was a powerful leader and a conqueror. Some people I spoke with forgot who Alexander was, but knew that he was influential at some point in history. Honestly, before this class I forgot what achievements Alexander made. Nevertheless, the leader is well known enough that even the ones who are not great at history know who he is, or has an idea of what kind of person he was. In high school my friends and I learned that Alexander was a ruler, however, we forgot most of it through the years. In class, I learned that Alexander conquered many lands: Persia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, etc and we went into more depth of the span of lands he took over. We also learned that he wore a helmet with horns, which had relation to the Gods.

“…passed on to Achaeia. And upon arriving there, he subdued many cities, and collected an army of 80,000 men” (lines 120-123). According to the reading, Pseudo-Callistenes, The Alexander Romance, after arriving to Achaeia Alexander took over many cities his army of 80,000 men. This shows how much power he had as a leader because he has the control over many individuals. Alexander has made a notable impact in our world history and it is clear to see it. My friends and family who are not very studious at least remembers that Alexander was a man that made great achievements.


Do you know who was Alexander the Great was?

Chou l., 18, friend, almost in his 20’s, Queens in College Point
1.Do you know who Alexander the Great was?
-“He conquered… conquered a lot of Greek. Really good conquer.”
2.What do you know about him?
-“He died. Idk this is like back in 4 years ago. He looks like he has Caesar salad hair, I wanna chop it off. Likes to be half naked. He likes horses and looks like a regular white guy.”
3.Where did you learn about him?
-“School, Global year 1.”

David l., brother, 22, in his 20’s, Brooklyn in Bensonhurst

1.Do you know who Alexander the Great was?
2.What do you know about him?
-“He doesn’t know much about it. He was a great conquered.”
3.Where did you learn about him?
-“umm history books”

Jamie X., friend, 16, not close to her 20’s yet, Brooklyn near Bayparkway
1.Do you know who Alexander the Great was?
2.What do you know about him?
-“He’s a great leader? He has fancy hair, smart. Looks weak.”
3.Where did you learn about him?
-“Global history”

Some similarities I got from all the surveys were that Alexander the Great was a great conqueror and that they learned about him in High School. Jamie was able to be specific in how he was described as in an anime she read. This shows that Alexander the Great made such a big impact, he has affected Japan’s history too. The people I ask may seem to only know him about his establishments because that’s all they were taught in textbooks.

All the answers may be different in their own ways based on what I learned in class. Yes, he is great but we never considered his title Great in class. We did learn that he made his merchants stay and mate with females from different places to populate this culture. Hence, his partner, Bucephalus, which is his horse that accompanied him all throughout the conquest.

“…his father who had died, Alexander was afraid to leave him in the put lest he is eaten by wild beasts. For it was night and the place was desolate. Moved by compassion and pity for his sire’, he lifted him tenderly and bored him nobly on his shoulders within the gates.”
-This quote illustrates his bravery, not in war but in his own passion for his father.

“…I have my own horse which I have trained from the time he was young and I have raised him for myself.”
-In this context, Alexander mentions his horse Bucephalus, as well as Chou, did. What I learned from knowing this was that Alexander had a horse from a young age, something we did not cover in class. I find this amusing because it can show Alexander’s commitment and leadership from a young age.

How Great was Alexander the Great?

Yuhang H., A friend, Aged 19, Facebook Messenger
1) Do you know who Alexander the Great was?    
  • “Yeah, I know who Alexander the Great was.”
2) What do you know about him?
  • “I knew that Alexander the Great led an ancient Greek army. He also fought the Persian army. He built a library that gathered many knowledgeable individuals and cultivated information from the places he conquered.”
3) Where did you learn about him?
  • “I learned about Alexander the great from global history class in middle school.”
Eric Z., A friend, Aged 18, Brooklyn Library
1) Do you know who Alexander the Great was?   
  • “Yes, but I don’t know much about him.”
2) What do you know about him?
  • “Well, I know that Alexander the Great was an Ancient Greek king and military leader. During his conquest he defeated Persia.”
3)  Where did you learn about him?
  • “I learned about him briefly from previous history lessons in (elementary/middle/high) school.”
Eric H., A friend, Aged 18, The Park
1) Do you know who Alexander the Great was? 
  • Yes, I have an idea of who he was.”
2) What do you know about him? 
  • “I know Alexander the Great was a Ancient Greek king and also a conqueror. He conquered most of the world at a young age.”
3) Where did you learn about him?
  • “I learned about him from history class in high school.”

What is similar about the answers you received? 

It seems as though that when people are questioned about who Alexander the Great was, they tend to have a very common answer. That is either ” he was a conqueror” or ” he was a leader” but overall they didn’t have a huge understanding of who he was. This makes me question myself whether if students or people in general care enough to know who he really was as a leader, a conqueror, and a king or not. This applies to many different other famous and historic not just Alexander the Great, people such as Thomas Edison and Abraham Lincoln. Most people would not have a huge idea of who they were but they know that they were important people that contributed to the society today. Most people would only know that Thomas Edison invented the light bulb and Abraham Lincoln was the United States 16th president. But is Alexander the Great in the same category as these people?

How is this similar or different to what you learned in this class?

In the reading “A history of the great world conqueror, Alexander of Macedon” in line 30 it stated “And Alexander became learned in every matter and trained himself so well, as I said before, that it became clearly evident chat he was being taught by some divinity. When he was free from tutorial counseling, from time to time he umpired his fellow students. And when he saw a team being defeated, he joined in the battle, and then, in turn, it was victorious. Thus it was clear that the victory was of his doing.” This is similar to the answers I received from the participants because it shows how Alexander was such a great leader and a conqueror. He so great that he was able to lead a team that was losing in a battle to victory. Because of how great Alexander was, it was portrayed that he was learning and training with something more divine like a God. This is what differs from the answers I received from the participates. In the modern world people would not question about how Alexander the Great became such a good leader, conqueror, and a king. People nowadays wouldn’t know that Alexander was so self trained that people started to think that he was training with a divine being. Despite all of Alexander’s achievements, people in the modern society would only be at the tip of the iceberg when they are asked about who Alexander the Great was.

Ionic Order in New York City


I found this “Medical Arts Building” near the School of Visual Arts. To me, this building struck out to me- not because of its composition but for its material. We can see it is an Ionic order with a frieze, capital, and base. Base on this structural, it does not contain drums within the shaft like the Corinthian or the Temple of Olympian Zeus. In my opinion, because it is not made out of stone the marble constructs this piece into a better form of communication for our modern audience. Changes in the material and composition of traditional architecture inspires the time of new culture, as Prof Yarrow would say. This piece may itself symbolize the growth of our new architecture design that fits this modern age. The title of this building is symbolic to its structure. Media arts, known as digital art is what we use today such as social media, websites, and etc. Having a classical looking temple and comparing it to a title of a modern time period gives it a sense of renewal. One may perhaps think that going pass these doors will be like going back to the future, where else looking at the title, one would expect futuristic structural interior. In this sense of thinking, this building itself is very contradicting. However, it does hold a purpose in having a very visual characteristic which I personally, enjoyed looking at.

Quiet Utopia

To many people an ideal society is where everyone work together. However, ever since we were young we were raised to be ‘future leaders of our generation’. It was expected of us that we were going to be at the top and as a person who others would look up to. According to Susan Cain, many students “…read “leadership skills” as a code for authority and dominance..”. I think that we have all put “leadership skills” or “to gain leadership skills” somewhere in our resume before. This shows that we were meant to think that society need many leaders.

However, in the article “Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking”, an ‘ideal society’ does not need that many leaders. A healthy running society actually needs more followers than leaders. To Susan, our society lacks followers because people are too busy striving for great things, and forgetting that working together can also lead to success. Each individual follower can apply their knowledge and creativity in their team, which makes them stronger.

I agree with this article because I don’t have many leadership qualities myself and I think it gives hope to followers to fit in society. If there are too many leaders out there, then there will most likely be conflict because everyone has different opinions and perspectives.

Plato would have probably agreed with this article, “By being trained to follow or obey them, therefore, a subject unwittingly adopting an ideology” (5). He is using a theory from Socrates to support the idea that a strong society comes from few leaders and many followers.

Cain, Susan. “Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking” The New York Times 24 March, 2017.

“Barbaric” Level: Human or Animals?

“…the agency employs people to kill wildlife, including 2,726,820 animals in 2016”.


There is often a boundary that separates humans and wild life because one would usually harm the other. In this case, the USDA Wildlife Services agency killed millions of wild animals per year in order to keep them away from people’s livestocks. This barbaric action can lead to a mass extinction of many animals on Earth. In this article, wild animals are treated as ‘other’, some humans think of them as a hassle because they damage their crops/livestocks. The target audience for the article are animal lovers, those that care about the lives of wild animals or animals in general. The social value that is being affirmed as a shared value for the target audience is that animal lives should also be valued. If this agency continue on hurting animals, even if they do not intend on hurting them, then many species can actually go extinct.

In our readings in class, the term ‘barbarian’ is used to call someone who is an outsider. Barbarians are people who dress differently, talk differently, and look differently. According to Herodotus, Croesus “…was the first of the barbarians who had dealings with the Greeks…” (4). Croesus is not from Greece and is therefore considered a barbarian. The meaning of the word barbarian in this article is to show the cruel actions done by humans. The killings done by this agency is “barbaric” meaning they are doing things monsters would do.

Is the Ideal Society the Same for Everyone?

Does everyone have the same perspective on what their ideal picture perfect world would be like? According to the article “Browsing the Web for the ideal utopia site.” by Michael Pollak, a 45-year-old accountant in Baltimore who has written a lengthy online Utopian philosophy, Jon Will, stated ”My vision of Utopia is the ability for each person to live in their own picture of Utopia,” Mr. Will wrote in an e-mail message. ”A heaven on earth, where everyone lives as they desire.” [1] That being the case, he believes the ideal society would be best if each individual was able to live in their own utopia. On that account there would be no values lacking in the society people would live in, since everyone is living their own ideal world. For this reason, I would definitely agree with Michael because everyone’s imagine of their picture perfect society would differ from each other. Therefore, it’s best if people were able to live in their own utopia. However, in the philosopher Plato’s perspective he would disagree with Michael because he believed people should be able to work together to create one perfect society. For example,  in “The Republic” written by Plato himself he stated “That is why, too, these groups can cooperate with one another in a just system, where the money-loving producers trade their products for the protection provided by the honor-loving guardians and the knowledge provided by the wisdom-loving kings, rather than competing with them for the same goods.” His quote supports his perspective that he believed the people would’ve helped each other to reach the ideal world. Unlike to Michael’s article, everyone are living in their own utopia. Thus, Plato would have to disagree with Michael’s perspective on the ideal society.

[1] Pollak, Michael. “Browsing the Web for the ideal utopia site.” New York Times, 28 Dec. 2000, p. G8. New York State Newspapers, Accessed 16 Sept. 2017.

Do you believe in a Utopian Society?

A Utopian society is the the imagination of a perfect and idealized world. In the article Utopia, and the Rest of All Possible Worlds. The author believes that the idea of a utopia society came after the world was left with war and chaos, wanting to have a longing for Utopian society. For example, it states, “ change the physical conditions of an imperfect thing, a city, and you will make it better.” This driven power of possibilities revolutionized many story books with wanting their own Utopian society. The author believes that thinking about a perfect place is after all a better way of living. There is this quote that caught my attention and it states, “There’s an answer. Or maybe we keep dreaming up impossible schemes of perfection to remind ourselves that the real world, in its messiness, is the best thing after all.” He does not seem to believe those values are lacking in the present tense because til this day, we still believe in such society at a certain point. No I don’t believe with the author, because if a perfect world is in fact perfect, I would make it such that nothing can go against it. The imagination of such dedicate world should live on. However, there will be lack of character in society, but I would like to see how long it would take until its rule breaks down. Plato would not agree in such a perfect world but rather fix it to become a better society. As stated, “ Plato brought to philosophy, the methods he invented to solve them, and the solutions he suggested and explored.” In this quote Plato seems to show his investment in making and producing answers for a better society but not a perfect society. One interesting fact that caught my eye was that in this article, there has been several calling from Sparta and Plato itself. Such as, “His colorful legacy is to the vast history of Utopian literature roughly what Plato’s Retreat is to the history of social custom in New York” and “some historians view Sparta as utopia’s fountainhead.” Not much was given, but the idea behind a driven force for a Utopian society did emerge.

To leave you off, here is a quote : “But we still keep dreaming, not necessarily because we believe in the idea of a secular utopia’s possible fulfillment but because, well, we seem to need to.”

Kimmelman, M. Utopia, and the Rest of All possible Worlds.” New York Times” [ New York] 19 October N: pE1

Barbaric Violence? Click to find out more..

          The ‘Other’ used the term in an article, “No justification for acts of violence in our country” is those who use violence. The government, political parties, and leaders that disunity the South African culture with “barbaric” violence. “We need to collectively set very high standards for ourselves and communicate these standards to the rest of the world without fear or favor.” This quote demonstrates that if we need to take action in regulating the county in a more formal and communicative approach. Their current system of violence is troubling more victims than helping them. The target in the South African newspaper is convincing its citizens as stated,“ We consciously and unconsciously glorify and promote violence in many ways. And the amount of graphic violence on our national television, social media, and other platforms is not helpful; it somehow continues to perpetrate acts of violence in many ways.” The way in which it is stated in “we” form is conveyed to the public. In order to change their perspective, she gives a form of personal/emotional connection to connect with her audience.The social value for the citizens is to become more aware of violence and to stop it. Hoping to stop the force of brutality in her nation, the editor hopes to make a change politically and economically. “Our violent past cannot be used as an excuse for us to fail to aggressively act against any acts of violence.” This quote reveals the type of change she hopes to change. In a form of confronting the citizens that there should be no excuse in the way they should behave because of their past experience, rather they should learn to act in an orderly manner.

        The ‘Other’ in article “Nation pays homage to Bangabandhu” are those who are bombed. The nation survived under the most barbaric carnage since 42 years ago. The target audience were outsiders. Since it is an attack on a different nation,, many were unaware of such trauma in Bangladesh. The editor left many survivors name in honor for their bravery.Nation pays homage to Bangabandhu” is trying to tell others that such carnage at that time, which was recent, barely happens. However, because of such tragedy, “ A munajat was offered seeking the eternal peace of the departed souls of the August 15 carnage” This quote offers a compelling sense of sorrow for those who died.

        During the Persian Revolt, 1.230, it states, “His own rank was too humble for him to hope to obtain vengeance without some barbarian help” I find that both usages of the word barbaric were used in the same context in the readings in class. However, they are not seen as outsiders, but rather a disgrace in the nation. The two articles use the word ‘barbaric’ in many similar ways. It is to show as a negative, inhumane word, and morally wrong. Both countries, Bangladesh and Nigeria, are trying to make their citizens aware of how barbaric their government system has changed the way of living.

Hasina, S. ” Nation pays homage to Bangabandhu.” The News Today[Bangladesh] 16 August 2017: 1105

“No justification for acts of violence in our country.” WeekendPost [South Africa] 26 August 2017: 522

How Bad Should the Penalty be for Barbaric Crimes?

Recently, according to nypost, a 43 year old man from Melbourne has been charged of slitting a injured kangaroo’s throat and killing it while making foolish remarks. In the article it has stated “The killing of this kangaroo is barbaric and cruel and we expect the police to prosecute the man involved,” World Animal Protection Senior Campaign Manager Ben Pearson said in a statement to the outlet. “It is hard to understand how anyone could commit such a brutal act, let alone film it.” [1] However, even though this person has committed such an barbaric act, he was only fined $7,900- $38,000 and 6 to 24 months in jail. This may seem a little too fair for a man who has committed a crime like this and even have the audacity to post it for millions of people to view. According to Herodotus, he once said “The man who has planned badly, if fortune is on his side, may have had a stroke of luck; but his plan was a bad one nonetheless.” His quote is relatable to this article because the man who committed this crime has made a bad decision is his life, but because of a little bit of luck he was able to receive a kind penalty. However, his act was still a bad decision regardless.

The man that killed the kangaroo is being treated as the “other” in this article because he has committed a barbaric act, therefore the attention is being based on him at the moment. Most of the attention being given are mainly based from adults and teens, since the barbaric act has been filmed and posted on a well known Chinese social media site named “QQ”. It is also clear that the audience is disgusted by this barbarian and his act because he was abusing the kangaroo while it was injured, which is considered as animal cruelty. Due to the amount of attention the video has gotten, it has lead to the man being prosecuted by the police. Resulting to him being fined and jailed. Differing from the word barbarians in Greek mythology terms to today’s definition of barbarian. Greek mythology defined a barbarian as a foreigner, meanwhile the definition of barbarian in today’s society describes a person as being uncivilized. Therefore, the man who killed the kangaroo is defined in today’s definition of a barbarian because he is being perceived as an uncivilized human being for his acts.

[1] Woods, Amanda. “Man Charged in ‘Barbaric’ Killing of Injured Kangaroo.” New York Post, New York Post, 1 Sept. 2017,

Is Being too Determined a Bad Thing?

The two main characters in the film, The Prestige, Alfred Bordan and Robert Angier were both determined to become the greatest magicians. They were obsessed to out perform each other. Their determination has lead them to make extreme sacrifices in their lives. For example, Angier wanted to sabotage Borden while he was performing by shooting a real bullet during Borden’s trick to catch a flying bullet. This lead to Borden cutting 2 of his fingers off, due to how serious the injury was. In order to get revenge on Angier, Borden decided to ruin Angier’s trick of a disappearing bird by tweaking the cage that led to Angier killing the bird on stage and the cancellation of the show.

This scene reflects on today’s human society because there are some individuals that are way too determined to achieve their goals that they have to sacrifice many valuable things in their lives in order to reach that goal. Lets take sports as an for example, a lot of younger kids in today’s society want to be able to be professional athletes when they grow up due to so much exposure to sports. However, they’re not even aware of the sacrifices they would have to make in order to achieve that goal. They are so determined that they start training like adults athletes from morning to night. While barely being able to balance that type of work ethic with school work at such a young age. Adding on, they don’t even have the proper time to take care of their health. This could be the reason why kids end up getting injured or suffering from mental illnesses. They aren’t allowing themselves to rest properly. Their pure determination may be the reason for possible failure in their future.

In comparison to Antigone, Antigone was also extremely determined to risk her life in order to bury her brother. The main reasoning for this determination is because she feels as if it’s her duty to bury Polynices body since he is her brother. Also, it was against the Gods and considered as immoral to leave bodies unburied. Therefore, If Antigone didn’t bury him she would’ve felt guilty and offended the Gods. This lead to her decision to violated Creon’s law by not leaving Polynices’s body to be consumed by animals in the wild.  By doing this, she sacrifices many consequences in order to bury her brother. Consequences that would eventually leads to the death of Antigone. This may have been prevented is Antigone wasn’t so determined to bury Polynices, but because of her stubbornness she had to face her downfall. Similar to the film, The Prestige, both main characters, Robert Angier’s and Alfred Borden’s determination to be the best magicians has lead them to their own downfalls.