Alvin Zhao- Team Leader

Anthony Mancuso- Delegate, recorder

Shu Lin Tan- Recorder

Julie Theodore -Speaker

Chanté Morren-recorder


Part 1:

Notes from Video:

  • Babies were discarded if they were flawed in a way that they wouldn’t become good soldiers.
  • Boys were taught to fight as soon as they could walk
  • At age 7, boys were separated from their mothers and put into a world of violence
  • Agoge- a system that forces the boys to fight. A system that starves them, forcing to steal or kill
  • They weren’t allowed to show pain or mercy even when being punished: hit by a rod or lash
  • Constantly tested and tossed into the wild
  • His time in the wild is their way to see if he can become a Spartan.


  • The Spartans didn’t want weak men.
  • Greatest glory they can achieve is dying on the battlefield fighting for Sparta.
  • The boys were starved so they had to learn how to steal or kill for food
  • Being punished for stealing food


  • Spartans were portrayed a lot more violently
  • Made it seem like it was every man for themselves
  • The tests like being thrown into the wild and being separated from their mother at the age of 7 to be put into a world of violence
  • Boys were left to die if they were born oddly : small, puny sickly or oddly shaped

I think the differences has been made so the Spartans seem more like barbarians that only know how to fight. Also to show that the Spartans were a race filled with perfect warriors.

2.I think people created this video or movie because they wanted people to know how the Spartans were taught from a young age. The video shows a very a barbaric side of the Spartans to the audience.

3.The target audience are older or more mature people: adults and maybe teenagers. The  movie is too violent for young children to watch and children wouldn’t know how Spartans were like. Even though adults and teenagers are mature enough to watch the movie, they most likely don’t know much about it because they also believe that Spartans were only barabric people. However that wasn’t the case, Spartans were people with a lot of respect and had their own law system and Constitution.

4.Value-laden words-

  • Greatest glory to die in service of Sparta
  • Finest warriors the world has ever known
  • World of violence
  • Perfect form
  • Discarded
  • Never to retreat, never to surrender
  1. I think the value- laden words suggests that the creator of the video is for violence. I feel that the target audience is also the same way because they use such violence as a source of entertainment.
  2. Visuals were very violent. They showed how the boy was taught as he grew older and what it took to be a Spartan. They were intended to appeal to a mature audience people interested in the violence as well as the education of the Spartans.

7.I think the creator wants the target audience to feel a sense of disgust, terror, surprised and at the same time to be in awe of what they see.


Micro Clip- 1:30-1:58

  • Agoge is a system that forces the boys to fight, steal and kill
  • Spartan a warrior society of 300 years to create the finest warriors the world has evver known.
  • They can’t show any kind of pain or mercy
  • The boys were punished with a rod or a lash as punishment for being caught stealing
  • The boys doesn’t show any sort of remorse when attacking others especially other children

Part 2

list of titles, authors, dates of publication and call numbers.


  • Alexander the Great Power as Destiny by Peter Bamm, 1968, DF234.E423
  • Alexander the Great by Ulrich Wilcken, 1932 DF 234.W71
  • Alexander’s Path by Freya Stark 1958 DF234.37.S8 1958b
  • The Campaigns of Alexander by Arrian, 2003, DF234.A773
  • Alexander’s Empire Formulation to Decay, Waldemar Heckel Lawerence Pat Wheatley, 2007,DF234.A496 2007
  • Alexander The Great by Robin Lane Fox , 1974, DF234.F69X 1974
  • Conquest and Empire: The reign of Alexander the Great by A.B. Bosworth,1988,.DF 234.B66 1988,
  • Alexander the Great: The Invisible Enemy by John Maxwell O’Brien,1992,  DF 234. 027 1992,
  • The Empire of Alexander The Great by Professor John Pentland Mahaffy, 1995, DF 234 . M21x 1995
  • Alexander the Great Journey to the End of the Earth by Norman F. Cantor, 2005, DF 234.C26 2005
  • Collected Papers on Alexander the Great by Ernst Badian, 2012, DF 234.B284x 2012
  • Alexander The Great By Baynham, 1998, DF234.B356
  • Alexander The Great By Paul Cartledge, 2004, DF234.C285
  • Alexander The Great: A New History By Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, DF234.A4857
  • Alexander’s Heirs By Anson, 2014, DF234.A673


The 5 newest books and 10 pages  

  • Alexander’s Heirs By Anson, 2014, DF 234.A673 (pages 11-21)
  • Alexander’s Empire Formulation to Decay, Waldemar Heckel Lawerence Pat Wheatley, 2007,DF234.A496 2007 (Pages 13-23)
  • Alexander the Great Journey to the End of the Earth by Norman F. Cantor, 2005, DF 234.C26 2005 (page 35-45)
  • Alexander The Great: A New History By Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, DF234.A4857 ( pages 7-17)
  • Collected Papers on Alexander the Great by Ernst Badian, 2012, DF 234.B284x 2012 (page 106-116)

Bibliography from Books

  • 1991. Alexander of Macedon 356-323 B.C,: A Historical Biography Berkeley from  Alexander’s Empire Formulation to Decay
  • Green, Peter. Alexander of Macedon: 356-323 B.C, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974 from Alexander the Great Journey to the End of the Earth
  • 1958  “Alexander The Great and Unity Of Mankind “  Historia 7 :425-44 from Alexander The Great: A New History

All of which is available online.

Alexander of Macedon is available at Brooklyn College as a hard copy and online.

An ideal society is different for everyone because of their surroundings.

In the article “Three Young Democracy Advocates in Hong Kong Are Sentenced to Prison” there is no such thing as an ideal society with freedom. Knowing that China is a Communist country they believe that everyone is equal and no one should be higher than the other. The government believes they should be in control of everything. That is their idea of an ideal society, with everything controlled by government. Now that things are very much evolved and a spread of cultures are more rampant people are starting to stand up for what they believe in. Due to the activist standing up for more freedom they were sentenced six to eight months in prison, and to complete community service. Because such acts never happen, people requested a harder punishment for the activist for their actions. Even though three activist stood against the government and this was not the first time, the government cannot say that the society as a whole is lacking values from their ideal society. Only a few people decided to stand up against so as a whole the Chinese society have not lost any values of their ideal society.  I would not be able to live in this society because I live in a country where I have a say in what goes on around me. For example I have the right to vote, protest, bear arms, free religion, and with these freedoms I would never trade them in. That is why living in China would not be the best fit for me.

An ideal society would be different for everyone because of their cultures. Since the communist people were never exposed to freedom or having a say in government, they wouldn’t have any other idea or vision for an ideal society. The communist society is what their ideal society would be. In comparison to Xenophon, their ideal society does not include women partaking in government or having a say in anything. Their role is staying home and cleaning and cooking being behind the scenes. It is the men that have all the roles. But because that is all they were exposed to the way of their living would be their ideal society. Therefore an ideal society is limited to what you are exposed to.


Wong, Alan. “Three Young Democracy Advocates in Hong Kong Are Sentenced to Prison.” New York Times, 18 Aug. 2017, p. A7(L). New York State Newspapers, Accessed 17 Sept. 2017.

The Blue Aphrodite

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This is an image I captured at the Brooklyn Museum of the Statuette of Aphrodite Anadyomene. As is displayed in this statuette, quite often Aphrodite is rendered ringing out her wet hair indicating that she was recently risen or been born out of the sea. There is also a minute amount of foam or waves from the sea on her left (our right) leg which clarifies the mythological scene in which this statuette is depicting. It is much smaller than other historical statuettes of Aphrodite which I have seen at the MET that are larger than I am. Rather, this statuette is 14 3/16 x Diam. 4 1/4 in. (36 x 10.8 cm) which is a little taller than a tall Starbucks cup. It is a little luminous as other traditional marble statues of Aphrodite are matte. Aphrodite is in an elegant contrapposto as she stands relaxed with her weight on her left leg, capable of moving. The blue color of the statuette may possibly be a form of verification of Aphrodite’s water birth or it may be that faience (a combination of  ground quartz with a mixture of alkali) was the only available medium for the Egyptians in the late second century B.C.E.. Yes, Greek mythology, in this case the orality of Aphrodite’s birth traveled all the way to ancient Egypt during the Greek Hellenistic period in Egypt / the Ptolemaic Period. This trade clearly had an influence on the Egyptians art and culture.

Aphrodite is translated from Greek to literally mean “foam-born” from the term aphros and as was previously mentioned, that is how she is shown in the statuette. However in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite she is referred to as, “‘.. Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus’”(Nagy, Line 107), “Zeus’s daughter Aphrodite” (Tyrell, Line 108). Thus, another myth of how she came into existence was by means of the ruler or supreme God Zeus which is a grand contrast from her depiction in the statuette. Born from a God versus born from the water. Her physical attributes are described in detail on various occasions as well. One such description is as follows, ““She clothed her body in beautiful garments. Dressed in gold …and glittering clothes. She was clothed in a dress more gleaming than bright fire…She wore coiled bracelets and shining earrings, and beautiful necklaces were about her tender neck, beautiful, golden, glittering” (Tyrell 64-65, 85-86,88-90). In the Poochigian’s translation of Sappho, ‘Hymn to Aphrodite’ the first description of her is “Subtly bedizened Aphrodite” (Poochigian, Line 1). These physical details makes one form a mental illustration of a woman with a sparkling dress adorned with many pieces of jewelry, contrary to the Statuette of Aphrodite Anadyomene where she is in the nude without a single article of clothing or dazzling pieces of jewelry. 


The Golden Apple


I recently bought few apples from the supermarket and I decided to use them since apples are a symbol of Aphrodite. The quote I chose is from the Homeric Hymn translated by Gregory Nagy, “Muse, tell me the things done by golden Aphrodite, the one from Cyprus, who arouses sweet desire for gods and who subdues the races of mortal humans and birds as well, who fly in the sky, as well as beasts” (Gregory Nagy, lines 1-4). This is from the beginning of the Homeric Hymn that addresses Aphrodite as the topic of this poem.  This quote characterizes Aphrodite because Cyprus is the birthplace of Aphrodite and where people worship her. Also this is characterizing Aphrodite as the goddess of love and beauty because she is described as being “golden” and how she can bring forth sweet desires between all beings. The number 5 is a symbol of Aphrodite because it indicates love and the perfection of the five senses. The apple is a symbol of love, fertility and ecstasy which is the goddess Aphrodite.

The word “golden” in the quote can also be a reference to the myth, “The Golden Apple of Discord”. In the myth, the golden apple had the writing “for the fairest” thrown into a wedding feast, where all the gods and goddesses were attending, by the Goddess of Discord, Eris as revenge for not being invited. The golden apple caused the goddesses to fight for the apple, in the end only three remain, Athena, Aphrodite and Hera. Zeus decided to let Pairs of Troy, a judge of extraordinary contests, decides who should get the apple. Athena and Hera tried to bribe Paris with wisdom and power, respectively, but Aphrodite bribed him the love of the most beautiful mortal woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. Paris accepted the gift from Aphrodite and gave her the golden apple that belonged to the fairest of all.


#Aphrodite #CLAS1 #SeeninNYC #Alvin, Team Venus